Get notified when we add a new ACACE Manual
Summary of Content
General Information And Maintenance AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Do's See Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Screwdrivers should be kept in good condition to prevent injury or damage which could result if the blade slips from the screw Fig. Fig. 2: Power tools should always be properly grounded Fig. Fig. 3: Using the correct size wrench will help prevent the possibility of rounding off a nut Fig. Fig. 4: NEVER work under a vehicle unless it is supported using safety stands (jackstands) Do keep a fire extinguisher and first aid kit handy. Do wear safety glasses or goggles when cutting, drilling, grinding or prying, even if you have 20-20 vision. If you wear glasses for the sake of vision, wear safety goggles over your regular glasses. Do shield your eyes whenever you work around the battery. Batteries contain sulfuric acid. In case of contact with the eyes or skin, flush the area with water or a mixture of water and baking soda, then seek immediate medical attention. Do use safety stands (jackstands) for any undervehicle service. Jacks are for raising vehicles; jackstands are for making sure the vehicle stays raised until you want it to come down. Whenever the vehicle is raised, block the wheels remaining on the ground and set the parking brake. Do use adequate ventilation when working with any chemicals or hazardous materials. Like carbon monoxide, the asbestos dust resulting from some brake lining wear can be hazardous in sufficient quantities. Do disconnect the negative battery cable when working on the electrical system. The secondary ignition system contains EXTREMELY HIGH VOLTAGE. In some cases it can even exceed 50,000 volts. Do follow manufacturer's directions whenever working with potentially hazardous materials. Most chemicals and fluids are poisonous if taken internally. Do properly maintain your tools. Loose hammerheads, mushroomed punches and chisels, frayed or poorly grounded electrical cords, excessively worn screwdrivers, spread wrenches (open end), cracked sockets, slipping ratchets, or faulty droplight sockets can cause accidents. Likewise, keep your tools clean; a greasy wrench can slip off a bolt head, ruining the bolt and often harming your knuckles in the process. Do use the proper size and type of tool for the job at hand. Do select a wrench or socket that fits the nut or bolt. The wrench or socket should sit straight, not cocked. Do, when possible, pull on a wrench handle rather than push on it, and adjust your stance to prevent a fall. Do be sure that adjustable wrenches are tightly closed on the nut or bolt and pulled so that the force is on the side of the fixed jaw. Do strike squarely with a hammer; avoid glancing blows. Do set the parking brake and block the drive wheels if the work requires a running engine. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Don'ts Print Don't run the engine in a garage or anywhere else without proper ventilation EVER! Carbon monoxide is poisonous; it takes a long time to leave the human body and you can build up a deadly supply of it in your system by simply breathing in a little every day. You may not realize you are slowly poisoning yourself. Always use power vents, windows, fans and/or open the garage door. Don't work around moving parts while wearing loose clothing. Short sleeves are much safer than long, loose sleeves. Hard-toed shoes with neoprene soles protect your toes and give a better grip on slippery surfaces. Jewelry such as watches, fancy belt buckles, beads or body adornment of any kind is not safe working around a vehicle. Long hair should be tied back under a hat or cap. Don't use pockets for toolboxes. A fall or bump can drive a screwdriver deep into your body. Even a rag hanging from your back pocket can wrap around a spinning shaft or fan. Don't smoke when working around gasoline, cleaning solvent or other flammable material. Don't smoke when working around the battery. When the battery is being charged, it gives off explosive hydrogen gas. Don't use gasoline to wash your hands; there are excellent soaps available. Gasoline contains dangerous additives which can enter the body through a cut or through your pores. Gasoline also removes all the natural oils from the skin so that bone dry hands will suck up oil and grease. Don't service the air conditioning system unless you are equipped with the necessary tools and training. When liquid or compressed gas refrigerant is released to atmospheric pressure it will absorb heat from whatever it contacts. This will chill or freeze anything it touches. Although refrigerant is normally non-toxic, R-12 becomes a deadly poisonous gas in the presence of an open flame. One good whiff of the vapors from burning refrigerant can be fatal. Don't use screwdrivers for anything other than driving screws! A screwdriver used as an prying tool can snap when you least expect it, causing injuries. At the very least, you'll ruin a good screwdriver. Don't use a bumper or emergency jack (that little ratchet, scissors, or pantograph jack supplied with the vehicle) for anything other than changing a flat! These jacks are only intended for emergency use out on the road; they are NOT designed as a maintenance tool. If you are serious about maintaining your vehicle yourself, invest in a hydraulic floor jack of at least a 1 1 / 2 ton capacity, and at least two sturdy jackstands. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information SERVICING YOUR VEHICLE SAFELY It is virtually impossible to anticipate all of the hazards involved with automotive maintenance and service, but care and common sense will prevent most accidents. Print The rules of safety for mechanics range from "don't smoke around gasoline," to "use the proper tool(s) for the job." The trick to avoiding injuries is to develop safe work habits and to take every possible precaution. Back to Top Tune-up And Performance Maintenance AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information American Motors Breakerless Inductive Discharge Ignition System Print See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of a Breakerless Inductive Discharge (BID) ignition system distributor During the years 1975 through 1977, all American Motors built engines were equipped with the Breakerless Inductive Discharge (BID) ignition system. The system consists of an electronic ignition control unit, a standard type ignition coil, a distributor that contains an electronic sensor and trigger wheel instead of a cam, breaker points and condenser, and the usual high tension wires and spark plugs. There are no contacting (and thus wearing) surfaces between the trigger wheel and the sensor. The dwell angle remains the same and never requires adjustment. The dwell angle is determined by the control unit and the angle between the trigger wheel spokes. Components The AMC breakerless inductive discharge (BID) ignition system consists of five components: Control unit Coil Breakerless distributor Ignition cables Spark plugs The control unit is a solid state, epoxy sealed module with waterproof connectors. The control unit has a built-in current regulator, so no separate ballast resistor or resistance wire is needed in the primary circuit. Battery voltage is supplied to the ignition coil positive (+) terminal when the ignition key is turned to the ON position; low voltage coil primary current is also supplied by the control unit. In place of the points, cam, and condenser, the distributor has a sensor and trigger wheel. The sensor is a small coil which generates an electromagnetic field when excited by the oscillator in the control unit. This system was last used in 1977. DESCRIPTION & OPERATION See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Location of the BID distributor sensor When the ignition switch is turned on, the control unit is activated. The control unit then sends an oscillating signal to the sensor, which cause the sensor to generate a magnetic field. When one of the trigger wheel teeth enters this field, the strength of the oscillation in the sensor is reduced. One the strength drops to a predetermined level, a demodulator circuit operates the control unit's switching transistor. The switching transistor is wired in series with the coil primary circuit; it switches the circuit off, inducing high voltage in the coil secondary winding when it gets the demodulator signal. From this point on, the BID ignition system works in the same manner as a conventional system. DIAGNOSIS & TESTING System Test 1. Check all the Breakerless Inductive Discharge (BID) ignition system electrical connections. 2. Disconnect the coil-to-distributor high tension lead from the distributor cap. 3. Using insulated pliers and a heavy glove, hold the end of the lead 1 / 2 in. (12.7mm) away from a ground. Crank the engine. If there is a spark, the trouble is not in the ignition system. Check the distributor cap, rotor, and wires. 4. Replace the spark plug lead. Turn the ignition switch off and disconnect the coil high tension cable from the center tower on the distributor cap. Place a paper clip around the cable 1 /2- 3 / 4 in. (12.7-19.05mm) from the metal end. Ground the paper clip to the engine. Crank the engine. If there is spark, the distributor cap or rotor may be at fault. 5. Turn the ignition switch off and replace the coil wire. Make the spark test of Step 3 again. If there is no spark, check the coil high tension wire with an ohmmeter. It should show 5-10,000 ohms resistance. If not, replace it and repeat the spark test. 6. Detach the distributor sensor lead wire plug. Check the wire connector by trying a no. 16 (0.177 in. [4.5mm]) drill bit for a snug fit in the female terminals. Apply a light coat of Silicone Dielectric Compound or its equivalent to the male terminals. Fill the female cavities 1 / 4 full. Reconnect the plug. 7. Repeat the test of Step 4. 8. If there was a spark in Step 7, detach the sensor lead plug and try a replacement sensor. Try the test again. If there is a spark, the sensor was defective. 9. Connect a multitester with a volt scale, between the coil positive terminal and an engine ground. With the ignition switch on, the volt scale should read battery voltage. If it is lower, there is a high resistance between the battery (through the ignition switch) and the coil. 10. Connect the multitester between the coil negative terminal and an engine ground. With the ignition switch on, the voltage should be 5-8 volts. If not, replace the coil. If you get a battery voltage reading, crank the engine slightly to move the trigger wheel tooth away from the sensor; voltage should drop to 5-8v. 11. Check the sensor resistance by connecting an ohmmeter to its leads. Resistance should be 1.6-2.4 ohms. Coil Testing Test the coil with a conventional coil checker or an ohmmeter. Primary resistance should be 1.25-1.40 ohms and secondary resistance should be 9-12K ohms. The open output circuit should be more than 20 kilovolts. Replace the coil if it doesn't meet specifications. DISTRIBUTOR OVERHAUL If you must remove the sensor from the distributor for any reason, it will be necessary to have the special sensor positioning gauge in order to align it properly during installation. Disassembly 1. Scribe matchmarks on the distributor housing, rotor, and engine block. Disconnect the leads and vacuum lines from the distributor. Remove the distributor. Unless the cap is to be replaced, leave it connected to the spark plug cables and position it out of the way. 2. Remove the rotor and dust cap. 3. Place a small gear puller over the trigger wheel, so that its jaws grip the inner shoulders of the wheel and not its arms. Place a thick washer between the gear puller and the distributor shaft to act as a spacer; do not press against the smaller inner shaft. 4. Loosen the sensor hold-down screw with a small pair of needlenosed pliers; it has a tamper proof head. Pull the sensor lead grommet out of the distributor body and pull out the leads from around the spring pivot pin. 5. Release the sensor securing spring by lifting it. Make sure that it clears the leads. Slide the sensor off the bracket. Remember, a special gauge is required for sensor installation. 6. Remove the vacuum advance unit securing screw. Slide the vacuum unit out of the distributor. Remove it only if it is to be replaced. 7. Clean the vacuum unit and sensor brackets. Lubrication of these parts is not necessary. To assemble: 8. Install the vacuum unit, if it was removed. 9. Assemble the sensor, sensor guide, flat washer, and retaining screw. Tighten the screw only far enough to keep the assembly together; don't allow the screw to project below the bottom of the sensor. Replacement sensors come with a slotted head screw to aid in assembly. If the original sensor is being used, replace the tamperproof screw with a conventional one. Use the original washer. 10. Secure the sensor on the vacuum advance unit bracket, making sure that the tip of the sensor is placed in the notch on the summing bar. 11. Position the spring on the sensor and route the leads around the spring pivot pin. Fit the sensor lead grommet into the slot on the distributor body. Be sure that the lead can't get caught in the trigger wheel. 12. Place the special sensor positioning gauge over the distributor shaft, so that the flat on the shaft is against the large notch on the gauge. Move the sensor until the sensor core fits into the small notch on the gauge. Tighten the sensor securing screw with the gauge in place (through the round hole in the gauge). 13. It should be possible to remove and install the gauge without any side movement of the sensor. Check this and remove the gauge. 14. Position the trigger wheel on the shaft. Check to see that the sensor core is centered between the trigger wheel legs and that the legs don't touch the core. 15. Bend a piece of 0.050" (1.27mm) gauge wire, so that it has a 90° angle and one leg 1 / 2 " (12.7mm) long. Use the gauge to measure the clearance between the trigger wheel legs and the sensor boss. Press the trigger wheel on the shaft until it just touches the gauge. Support the shaft during this operation. 16. Place 3 to 5 drops of SAE 20 oil on the felt lubricator wick. 17. Install the dust shield and rotor on the shaft. 18. Install the distributor on the engine using the matchmarks made during removal and adjust the timing. Use a new distributor mounting gasket. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information American Motors Solid State Ignition (SSI) System DESCRIPTION & OPERATION Print See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the American motors Solid State Ignition (SSI) system distributor components AMC introduced Solid State Ignition (SSI) as a running change on some 1977 Canadian models. It is standard equipment on all 1978 and later American Motors built engines. The system consists of a sensor and toothed trigger wheel inside the distributor, and a permanently sealed electronic control unit which determines dwell, in addition to the coil, ignition wires, and spark plugs. The trigger wheel rotates on the distributor shaft. As one of its teeth nears the sensor magnet, the magnetic field shifts toward the tooth. When the tooth and sensor are aligned, the magnetic field is shifted to its maximum, signaling the electronic control unit to switch off the coil primary current. This starts an electronic timer inside the control unit, which allows the primary current to remain off only long enough for the spark plug to fire. The timer adjusts the amount of time primary current is off according to conditions, thus automatically adjusting dwell. There is also a special circuit within the control unit to detect and ignore spurious signals. Spark timing is adjusted by both mechanical (centrifugal) and vacuum advance. A wire of 1.35 ohms resistance is spliced into the ignition feed to reduce voltage to the coil during running conditions. The resistance wire is bypassed when the engine is being started so that full battery voltage may be supplied to the coil. Bypass is accomplished by the I-terminal on the solenoid. TESTING Secondary Circuit 1. Disconnect the coil wire from the center of the distributor cap. Twist the rubber boot slightly in either direction, then grasp the boot and pull straight up. Do not pull on the wire, and do not use pliers. 2. Hold the wire 3 / 8 in. (12.7mm) from a ground with a pair of insulated pliers and a heavy glove. As the engine is cranked, watch for a spark. 3. If a spark appears, reconnect the coil wire. Remove the wire from one spark plug, and test for a spark as above. CAUTION Do not remove the spark plug wires from cylinder 3 on the 4-150, or cylinder 3 or 5 on a 1977-79 6-258 or 1 or 5 on a 1980 and later 6-258, or cylinders 3 or 4 of an 8-360, when performing this test, as sensor damage could occur. 4. If a spark occurs, the problem is in the fuel system or ignition timing. If no spark occurs, check for a defective rotor, cap, or spark plug wires. 5. If no spark occurs from the coil wire in Step 2, test the coil wire resistance with an ohmmeter. It should be 7,700-9,300 omega at +75°F (+24°C) or 12,000 omega maximum at +93°F (+34°C). Primary Circuit 1. Turn the ignition ON. Connect a multitester to the coil positive (+) terminal and a ground. If the voltage is 5.5-6.5 volts, go to Step 2. If above 7 volts, go to Step 4. If below 5.5 volts, disconnect the condenser lead and measure. If the voltage is now 5.5-6.5 volts, replace the condenser. If not, go to Step 6. 2. With the multitester connected as in Step 1, read the voltage with the engine cranking. If battery voltage is indicated, the circuit is okay. If not, go to Step 3. 3. Check for a short or open in the starter solenoid I-terminal wire. Check the solenoid for proper operation. 4. Disconnect the wire from the starter solenoid I-terminal, with the ignition On and the multitester connected as in Step 1. If the voltage drops to 5.56.5 volts, replace the solenoid. If not, connect a jumper between the coil negative (-) terminal and a ground. If the voltage drops to 5.5-6.5 volts, go to Step 5. If not, repair the resistance wire. 5. Check for continuity between the coil (-) terminal and D4, and D1 to ground. If the continuity is okay, replace the control unit. If not, check for an open wire and go back to Step 2. 6. Turn ignition OFF. Connect an ohmmeter between the + coil terminal and dash connector AV. If above 1.40 ohms, repair the resistance wire. 7. With the ignition Off, connect the ohmmeter between connector AV and ignition switch terminal 11. If less than 0.1 ohms, replace the ignition switch or repair the wire, whichever is the cause. If above 0.1 ohms, check connections; and check for defective wiring. Coil 1. Check the coil for cracks, carbon tracks, etc., and replace as necessary. 2. Connect an ohmmeter across the coil + and - terminals, with the coil connector removed. If 1.13-1.23 ohms @ +75°F (+24°C), the coil is okay. If not, replace it. Control Unit and Sensor 1. With the ignition ON, remove the coil high tension wire from the distributor cap and hold 1 / 2 " (12.7mm) from ground with insulated pliers. Disconnect the 4-wire connector at the control unit. If a spark occurs (normal), go to Step 2. If not, go to Step 5. 2. Connect an ohmmeter to D2 and D3. If the resistance is 400-800 ohms (normal), go to Step 6. If not, go to Step 3. 3. Disconnect and reconnect the 3-wire connector at distributor. If the reading is now 400-800 ohms, go to Step 6. If not, disconnect the 3-wire connector and go to Step 4. 4. Connect the ohmmeter across B2 and B3. If 300-800 ohms, repair the harness between the 3-wire and 4-wire connectors. If not, replace the sensor. 5. Connect the ohmmeter between D1 and the battery negative terminal. If the reading is 0 (0.002 ohms or less), go to Step 2. If above 0.002 ohms, there is a bad ground in the cable or at the distributor. Repair the ground and retest. 6. Connect a multitester across D2 and D3. Crank the engine. If the needle fluctuates, the system is okay. If not, either the trigger wheel is defective, or the distributor is not turning. Repair or replace as required. Ignition Feed-to-Control Unit Test Do not perform this test without first performing the Coil Primary Circuit Test. 1. With the ignition ON, unplug the 2-wire connector at the module. Connect a multitester between F2 and ground. If the reading is battery voltage, replace the control unit and go to Step 3. If not, go to Step 2. 2. Repair the cause of the voltage reduction: either the ignition switch or a corroded dash connector. Check for a spark at the coil wire. If okay, stop. If not, replace the control unit and check for proper operation. 3. Reconnect the 2-wire connector at the control unit, and unplug the 4-wire connector at the control unit. Connect an ammeter between C1 and ground. If it reads 0.9-1.1 amps, the system is okay. If not, replace the module. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Delco High Energy Ignition (HEI) System See Figure 1 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded views of the High Energy Ignition (HEI) system distributor components The General Motors High Energy Ignition (HEI) system is a pulse triggered, transistor controlled, inductive discharge ignition system. The entire HEI system is contained within the distributor cap. The distributor, in addition to housing the mechanical and vacuum advance mechanisms, contains the ignition coil (except on some inline six engines), the electronic control module, and the magnetic triggering device. The magnetic pick-up assembly contains a permanent magnet, a pole piece with internal teeth, and a pick-up coil (not to be confused with the ignition coil). In the HEI system, as in other electronic ignition systems, the breaker points have been replaced with an electronic switcha transistor, which is located within the control module. This switching transistor performs the same function the points did in a conventional ignition system; it simply turns coil primary current on and off at the correct time. Essentially then, electronic and conventional ignition systems operate on the same principle. The module which houses the switching transistor is controlled (turned on and off) by a magnetically generated impulse induced in the pick-up coil. When the teeth of the rotating timer align with the teeth of the pole piece, the induced voltage in the pick-up coil signals the electronic module to open the coil primary circuit. The primary current then decreases, and a high voltage is induced in the ignition coil secondary windings, which is then directed through the rotor and spark plug wires to fire the spark plugs. In essence, then, the pick-up coil module system simply replaces the conventional breaker points and condenser. The condenser found within the distributor is for radio suppression purposes only and has nothing to do with the ignition process. The module automatically controls the dwell period, increasing it with increasing engine speed. Since dwell is automatically controlled, it cannot be adjusted. The module itself is non-adjustable and nonrepairable and must be replaced if found defective. HEI SYSTEM PRECAUTIONS Before going on to troubleshooting, it might be a good idea to take note of the following precautions. Timing Light Use Inductive pick-up timing lights are the best kind to use with HEI. Timing lights which connect between the spark plug and the spark plug wire occasionally (not always) give false readings. Spark Plug Wires The plug wires used with HEI systems are of a different construction than conventional wires. When replacing them, make sure you get the correct wires, since conventional wires won't carry the voltage. Also handle them carefully to avoid cracking or splitting them and never pierce them. Tachometer Use Not all tachometers will operate or indicate correctly when used on an HEI system. While some tachometers may give a reading, this does not necessarily mean the reading is correct. In addition, some tachometers hook up differently from others. If you can't figure out whether or not your tachometer will work on your truck, check with the tachometer manufacturer. Dwell readings have no significance at all. HEI System Testers Instruments designed specifically for testing HEI systems are available from several tool manufacturers. Some of these will even test the module itself. However, the test given in the following information will require only a multitester with volt and ohm scales. TROUBLESHOOTING THE HEI SYSTEM The symptoms of a defective component within the HEI system are exactly the same as those you would encounter in a conventional system. Some of these symptoms are: Hard or no starting Rough idle Poor fuel economy Engine misses under load or while accelerating If you suspect a problem in the ignition system, there are certain preliminary checks which you should carry out before you begin to check the electronic portions of the system. First, it is extremely important to make sure that the vehicle's battery is in good condition. A defective or poorly charged battery will cause the various components of the ignition system to read incorrectly when tested. Second, make sure all of the wiring connections are clean and tight, not only at the battery, but also at the distributor cap, coil and module. Since the major difference between electronic and point type ignition systems is in the distributor area, it is imperative to check the secondary ignition wires first. If the secondary system checks out okay, then the problem is probably not in the ignition system. To check the secondary system, perform a simple spark test. Remove on of the spark plug wires from the plug and insert a makeshift extension made of conductive metal, in the wire boot. Hold the 1 wire and extension about / 4 in. (6.35mm) away from the block and crank the engine. If a normal spark occurs, then the problem is most likely not in the ignition system. Check for fuel system problems, or fouled spark plugs. If, however, there is no spark or a weak spark, then further ignition system testing will have to be done. Troubleshooting techniques fall into two categories, depending on the nature of the problem. The categories are (1) Engine cranks, but won't start, and (2) Engine runs, but runs rough or cuts out. Engine Fails to Start If the engine won't start, perform a spark test as described earlier. If no spark occurs, check for the presence of normal battery voltage at the battery (BAT) terminal in the distributor cap. The ignition switch must be in the on position for this test. Either a multitester or a test light may be used for this test. Connect the test light wire to ground and the probe end to the BAT terminal at the distributor. If the light comes on, you have voltage to the distributor. If the light fails to come on, this indicates an open circuit in the ignition primary wiring leading to the distributor. In this case, you will have to check wiring continuity back to the ignition switch using test light. If there is battery voltage at the BAT terminal, but no spark at the plugs, then the problem lies within the distributor assembly. Go on to the distributor components test information. Engine Runs, but Runs Roughly or Cuts Out 1. Make sure the plug wires are in good shape first. There should be no obvious cracks or breaks. You can check the plug wires with an ohmmeter, but do not pierce the wires with a probe. Check the chart for the correct plug wire resistance. 2. If the plug wires are okay, remove the cap assembly, and check for moisture, cracks, chips, or carbon tracks, or any other high voltage leaks or failures. Replace the cap if you find any defects. Make sure the timer wheel rotates when the engine is cranked. If everything is all right so far, go on to the distributor components test information. Distributor Components Testing See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Ohmmeter positions for testing the pick-up coil If the trouble has been narrowed down to the units within the distributor, the following tests can help pinpoint the defective component. An ohmmeter with both high and low ranges should be used. These tests are made with the cap assembly removed and the battery wire disconnected. 1. Connect an ohmmeter between the TACH and BAT terminals in the distributor cap. The primary coil resistance should be less than 1.0 ohms (zero or nearly zero). 2. To check the coil secondary resistance, connect an ohmmeter between the rotor button and the BAT terminal. Then connect the ohmmeter between the ground terminal and the rotor button. The resistance in both cases should be between 6,000 and 30,000 ohms. 3. Replace the coil only if the readings in steps 1 and 2 are infinite. These resistance checks will not disclose shorted coil windings. This condition can be detected only with scope analysis or a suitably designed coil tester. If these instruments are unavailable, replace the coil with a known good coil as a final coil test. 4. To test the pick-up coil, first disconnect the white and green module leads. Set the ohmmeter on the high scale and connect it between a ground and either the white or green lead. Any resistance measurement less than infinity requires replacement of the pick-up coil. 5. Pick-up coil continuity is tested by connecting the ohmmeter (on low range) between the white and green leads. Normal resistance is between 500 and 1500 ohms. Move the vacuum advance arm while performing this test. This will detect any break in coil continuity. Such a condition can cause intermittent misfiring. Replace the pick-up coil if the reading is outside the specific limits. 6. If no defects have been found at this time, and you still have a problem, then the module will have to be checked. If you do not have access to a module tester, the only possible alternative is a substitution test. If the module fails the substitution test, replace it. COMPONENT REPLACEMENT Integral Ignition Coil 1. Disconnect the feed and module wire terminal connectors from the distributor cap. 2. Remove the ignition set retainer. 3. Remove the 4 coil cover-to-distributor cap screws and coil cover. 4. Remove the 4 coil-to-distributor cap screws. 5. Using a blunt drift, press the coil wire spade terminals up out of distributor cap. 6. Lift the coil up out of the distributor cap. 7. Remove and clean the coil spring, rubber seal washer and coil cavity of the distributor cap. 8. Coat the rubber seal with a dielectric lubricant furnished in the replacement ignition coil package. 9. Reverse the above procedures to install. Distributor Cap 1. Remove the feed and module wire terminal connectors from the distributor cap. 2. Remove the retainer and spark plug wires from the cap. 3. Depress and release the 4 distributor cap-to-housing retainers and lift off the cap assembly. 4. Remove the 4 coil cover screws and cover. 5. Using a finger or a blunt drift, push the spade terminals up out of the distributor cap. 6. Remove all 4 coil screws and lift the coil, coil spring, and rubber seal washer out of the cap coil cavity. 7. Using a new distributor cap, reverse the above procedures to assembly, being sure to clean and lubricate the rubber seal washer with dielectric lubricant. Rotor 1. Disconnect the feed and module wire connectors from the distributor. 2. Depress and release the 4 distributor cap to housing retainers and lift off the cap assembly. 3. Remove the two rotor attaching screws and rotor. 4. Reverse the above procedure to install. Vacuum Advance 1. Remove the distributor cap and rotor as previously described. 2. Disconnect the vacuum hose from the vacuum advance unit. 3. Remove the two vacuum advance retaining screws, pull the advance unit outward, rotate, and disengage the operating rod from its tang. 4. Reverse the above procedure to install. Module See Figure 3 Fig. Fig. 3: Ensure the mating surfaces are coated with dielectric compound before installing the module 1. Remove the distributor cap and rotor as previously described. 2. Disconnect the harness connector and pick-up coil spade connectors from the module. Be careful not to damage the wires when removing the connector. 3. Remove the two screws and module from the distributor housing. 4. Coat the bottom of the new module with dielectric lubricant supplied with the new module. Reverse the above procedure to install. Back to Top Engine And Engine Overhaul AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Alternator A variety of alternators were used: 1975: Motorola and Delco 1976: 6-cyl.Delco 8-cyl.Motorcraft 1977-78: 4 and 6 cyl.Delco 8-cyl.Motorcraft 1979: 4 and 6 cyl.Delco Print 8-cyl.Bosch 1980: All Delco, exc. Eagle with heated rear window (Bosch) 1981-88: All Delco The alternator needs no lubrication or adjustments except for drive belt tension. ALTERNATOR PRECAUTIONS Certain safety precautions should be observed concerning the alternator: 1. Do not polarize the unit. 2. Do not short across or ground any of the terminals. 3. Never operate the unit with the output terminal disconnected. 4. Make sure that the battery is installed with the correct polarity. 5. When connecting a booster battery or a charger, always connect positive terminal to positive terminal and negative terminal to negative terminal. 6. Disconnect the battery ground cable when working on any electrical equipment. 7. If any electric welding is done on the car, disconnect the alternator completely. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION See Figures 1 through 10 Fig. Fig. 1: Location of the electrical terminals on a common Delco alternator Fig. Fig. 2: Loosen the negative battery cable clamp retaining bolt ... Fig. Fig. 3: ... then remove the negative battery cable from the terminal Fig. Fig. 4: Remove the alternator adjustment bolt ... Fig. Fig. 5: ... then remove the drive belt from the pulley Fig. Fig. 6: Remove the terminals retaining nut ... Fig. Fig. 7: ... then disengage all the electrical cable from the alternator Fig. Fig. 8: Use a back-up wrench to hold the nut and a ratchet and socket to unfasten the mounting bolt Fig. Fig. 9: Support the weight of the alternator and remove the mounting bolt Fig. Fig. 10: Remove the alternator from the engine 1. Disconnect the battery cables. Always disconnect the ground cable first, and connect it last, and then you needn't fear sparks. 2. Remove the adjusting bolt. 3. Take off the drive belt. 4. Disconnect the alternator wires or wiring plug. 5. Remove the mounting bolts and the alternator. 6. Reverse the procedure for installation. 7. Adjust the drive belt. BELT TENSION ADJUSTMENT 1 The alternator drive belt, or any engine V-belt, is correctly tensioned when the longest span of belt between pulleys can be depressed about / 2 " (12.7mm) in the middle by moderate thumb pressure. To adjust, loosen the slotted adjusting bracket bolt. If the alternator hinge bolt(s) is very tight, it may be necessary to loosen it slightly to more the alternator. V8 engines have a hole in the 1 alternator bracket, so that you can insert a big screwdriver and pry out on the alternator. Some V8s have a square hole into which you can insert a / 2 " square socket drive. The best way is to pull the alternator out by hand to avoid overtightening. WARNING Be careful not to overtighten the belt, as this will damage the alternator bearings. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Battery REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print 1. Remove the hold-down screws from the battery box. Loosen the nuts that secure the cable ends to the battery terminals. Lift the battery cables from the terminals with a twisting motion. 2. If there is a battery cable puller available, make use of it. Lift the battery from the vehicle. 3. Before installing the battery in the vehicle, make sure that the battery terminals are clean and free from corrosion. Use a battery terminal cleaner on the terminals and on the inside of the battery cable ends. If a cleaner is not available, use a heavy sandpaper to remove the corrosion. A mixture of baking soda and water will neutralize any acid. Place the battery in the vehicle. Install the cables on the terminals. Tighten the nuts on the cable ends. Smear a light coating of grease on the cable ends and the tops of the terminals. This will prevent buildup of oxidized acid on the terminals and the cable ends. Install and tighten the nuts of the battery box. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Battery, Starting and Charging Systems BASIC OPERATING PRINCIPLES Print Battery The battery is the first link in the chain of mechanisms which work together to provide cranking of the automobile engine. In most modern vehicles, the battery is a lead/acid electrochemical device consisting of six 2v subsections (cells) connected in series so the unit is capable of producing approximately 12v of electrical pressure. Each subsection consists of a series of positive and negative plates held a short distance apart in a solution of sulfuric acid and water. The two types of plates are of dissimilar metals. This sets-up a chemical reaction, and it is this reaction which produces current flow from the battery when its positive and negative terminals are connected to an electrical accessory such as a lamp or motor. The continued transfer of electrons would eventually convert the sulfuric acid to water, and make the two plates identical in chemical composition. As electrical energy is removed from the battery, its voltage output tends to drop. Thus, measuring battery voltage and battery electrolyte composition are two ways of checking the ability of the unit to supply power. During engine cranking, electrical energy is removed from the battery. However, if the charging circuit is in good condition and the operating conditions are normal, the power removed from the battery will be replaced by the alternator which will force electrons back through the battery, reversing the normal flow, and restoring the battery to its original chemical state. Starting System The battery and starting motor are linked by very heavy electrical cables designed to minimize resistance to the flow of current. Generally, the major power supply cable that leaves the battery goes directly to the starter, while other electrical system needs are supplied by a smaller cable. During starter operation, power flows from the battery to the starter and is grounded through the vehicle's frame/body or engine and the battery's negative ground strap. The starter is a specially designed, direct current electric motor capable of producing a great amount of power for its size. One thing that allows the motor to produce a great deal of power is its tremendous rotating speed. It drives the engine through a tiny pinion gear (attached to the starter's armature), which drives the very large flywheel ring gear at a greatly reduced speed. Another factor allowing it to produce so much power is that only intermittent operation is required of it. Thus, little allowance for air circulation is necessary, and the windings can be built into a very small space. The starter solenoid is a magnetic device which employs the small current supplied by the start circuit of the ignition switch. This magnetic action moves a plunger which mechanically engages the starter and closes the heavy switch connecting it to the battery. The starting switch circuit usually consists of the starting switch contained within the ignition switch, a neutral safety switch or clutch pedal switch, and the wiring necessary to connect these in series with the starter solenoid or relay. The pinion, a small gear, is mounted to a one way drive clutch. This clutch is splined to the starter armature shaft. When the ignition switch is moved to the START position, the solenoid plunger slides the pinion toward the flywheel ring gear via a collar and spring. If the teeth on the pinion and flywheel match properly, the pinion will engage the flywheel immediately. If the gear teeth butt one another, the spring will be compressed and will force the gears to mesh as soon as the starter turns far enough to allow them to do so. As the solenoid plunger reaches the end of its travel, it closes the contacts that connect the battery and starter, then the engine is cranked. As soon as the engine starts, the flywheel ring gear begins turning fast enough to drive the pinion at an extremely high rate of speed. At this point, the one-way clutch begins allowing the pinion to spin faster than the starter shaft so that the starter will not operate at excessive speed. When the ignition switch is released from the starter position, the solenoid is de-energized, and a spring pulls the gear out of mesh interrupting the current flow to the starter. Some starters employ a separate relay, mounted away from the starter, to switch the motor and solenoid current on and off. The relay replaces the solenoid electrical switch, but does not eliminate the need for a solenoid mounted on the starter used to mechanically engage the starter drive gears. The relay is used to reduce the amount of current the starting switch must carry. Charging System The automobile charging system provides electrical power for operation of the vehicle's ignition system, starting system and all electrical accessories. The battery serves as an electrical surge or storage tank, storing (in chemical form) the energy originally produced by the engine driven generator. The system also provides a means of regulating output to protect the battery from being overcharged and to avoid excessive voltage to the accessories. The storage battery is a chemical device incorporating parallel lead plates in a tank containing a sulfuric acid/water solution. Adjacent plates are slightly dissimilar, and the chemical reaction of the two dissimilar plates produces electrical energy when the battery is connected to a load such as the starter motor. The chemical reaction is reversible, so that when the generator is producing a voltage (electrical pressure) greater than that produced by the battery, electricity is forced into the battery, and the battery is returned to its fully charged state. Newer automobiles use alternating current generators or alternators, because they are more efficient, can be rotated at higher speeds, and have fewer brush problems. In an alternator, the field usually rotates while all the current produced passes only through the stator winding. The brushes bear against continuous slip rings. This causes the current produced to periodically reverse the direction of its flow. Diodes (electrical one way valves) block the flow of current from traveling in the wrong direction. A series of diodes is wired together to permit the alternating flow of the stator to be rectified back to 12 volts DC for use by the vehicle's electrical system. The voltage regulating function is performed by a regulator. The regulator is often built in to the alternator; this system is termed an integrated or internal regulator. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Distributor REMOVAL Print See Figures 1 through 6 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of a common HEI distributor Fig. Fig. 2: Matchmark the distributor housing-to-engine block position so that they can be matched during installation Fig. Fig. 3: Disconnect the hose from the vacuum advance unit Fig. Fig. 4: Use a distributor wrench to loosen the distributor hold down-bolt ... Fig. Fig. 5: ... then remove the hold-down bolt Fig. Fig. 6: Grasp the distributor and pull it straight up and out from the engine 1. Remove the high tension wires from the distributor cap terminal towers, noting their positions to assure correct reassembly. For diagrams of firing orders and distributor wiring, refer to the tune-up and troubleshooting information. 2. Remove the primary lead from the terminal post at the side of the distributor. The wire connector on 1978 and later models will contain a special conductive grease. Do not remove it. The same grease will also be found on the metal parts of the rotor. 3. Disconnect the vacuum line if there is one. 4. Remove the two distributor cap retaining hooks or screws and remove the distributor cap. 5. Note the position of the rotor in relation to the base. Scribe a mark on the base of the distributor and on the engine block to facilitate reinstallation. Align the marks with the direction the metal tip of the rotor is pointing. 6. Remove the bolt that holds the distributor to the engine. 7. Lift the distributor assembly from the engine. INSTALLATION - Engine Not Rotated EXCEPT 4-150 ENGINES See Figures 7 and 8 Fig. Fig. 7: Exploded view of the distributor used on the 4-151 engine1980-81 models Fig. Fig. 8: Exploded view of the distributor used on the 4-151 engine1982-83 models 1. Insert the distributor shaft and assembly into the engine. Line up the mark on the distributor and the one on the engine with the metal tip of the rotor. Make sure that the vacuum advance diaphragm is pointed in the same direction as it was pointed originally. This will be done automatically if the marks on the engine and the distributor are line up with the rotor. 2. Install the distributor hold-down bolt and clamp. Leave the screw loose enough so that you can move the distributor with heavy hand pressure. 3. Connect the primary wire to the distributor side of the coil. Install the distributor cap on the distributor housing. Secure the distributor cap with the spring clips or the screw type retainers, whichever is used. 4. Install the spark plug wires. Make sure that the wires are pressed all of the way into the top of the distributor cap and firmly onto the spark plugs. 5. Adjust the point cam dwell and set the ignition timing. Refer to the tune-up information. If the engine was turned while the distributor was removed, or if the marks were not drawn, it will be necessary to initially time the engine. Follow the procedure below. Engine Rotated EXCEPT 4-150 ENGINES 1. If the engine has been rotated while the distributor was out, you'll have to first put the engine on No. 1 cylinder at Top Dead Center firing position. You can either remove the valve cover or No. 1 spark plug to determine engine position. Rotate the engine with a socket wrench on the nut at the center of the front pulley in the normal direction of rotation. Either feel for air being expelled forcefully through the spark plug hole or watch for the engine to rotate up to the Top Center mark without the valves moving (both valves will be closed). If the valves are moving as you approach TDC or there is no air being expelled through the plug hole, turn the engine another full turn until you get the appropriate indication as the engine approaches TDC position. 2. Start the distributor into the engine with the matchmarks between the distributor body and the engine lined up. Turn the rotor slightly until the matchmarks on the bottom of the distributor body and the bottom of the distributor shaft near the gear are aligned. Then, insert the distributor all the way into the engine. If you have trouble getting the distributor and camshaft gears to mesh, turn the rotor back and forth very slightly until the distributor can be inserted easily. If the rotor is not now lined up with the position of No. 1 plug terminal, you'll have to pull the distributor back out slightly, shift the position of the rotor appropriately, and then reinstall it. 3. Align the matchmarks between the distributor and engine. Install the distributor mounting bolt and tighten it finger-tight. Reconnect the vacuum advance line and distributor wiring connector, and reinstall the gasket and cap. Reconnect the negative battery cable. Adjust the ignition timing as described in Chapter 2. Then, tighten the distributor mounting bolt securely. 4-150 ENGINES See Figures 9, 10, 11 and 12 Fig. Fig. 9: Exploded view of the distributor components used on the 4-150 engine1984 models Fig. Fig. 10: The oil pump shaft must be in position before distributor installation4-150 engine Fig. Fig. 11: The distributor rotor and shaft must be in the position before installation4-150 engine Fig. Fig. 12: Location of the rotor when the distributor is properly installed4-150 engine 1. Rotate the engine until the No. 1 piston is at TDC compression. 2. Using a flat bladed screwdriver, in the distributor hole, rotate the oil pump gear so that the slot in the oil pump shaft is slightly past the 3:00 o'clock position, relative to the length of the engine block. 3. With the distributor cap removed, install the distributor with the rotor at the 5:00 o'clock position, relative to the oil pump gear shaft slot. When the distributor is completely in place, the rotor should be at the 6:00 o'clock position. If not, remove the distributor and perform the entire procedure again. 4. Tighten the lockbolt. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information ENGINE ELECTRICAL A conventional point-type ignition system is used on all 4-121 engines. All other engines are equipped with electronic ignition. Print 1975 through 1977 engines use the Breakerless Inductive Discharge (BID) ignition system. The system consists of an electronic ignition control unit, a standard type ignition coil, a distributor that contains an electronic sensor and trigger wheel instead of a cam, breaker points and condenser, and the usual high tension wires and spark plugs. There are no contacting (and thus wearing) surfaces between the trigger wheel and the sensor. The dwell angle remains the same and never requires adjustment. The dwell angle is determined by the control unit and the angle between the trigger wheel spokes. In 1978 the system was modified to include a different ignition module and distributor, and was renamed Solid State Ignition (SSI). The 4-151 engine uses the Delco-Remy High Energy Ignition (HEI) system. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Ignition Coil REMOVAL & INSTALLATION - Except 4-151 Engines 1. Disconnect the battery ground. 2. Disconnect the two small and one large wire from the coil. 3. Disconnect the condenser connector from the coil, if equipped. 4. Unbolt and remove the coil. 5. Installation is the reverse of removal. 4-151 Engines 1980-81 MODELS Print See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Common ignition coil used on the 4-151 engine1980-81 1. Remove the distributor cap. 2. Remove the three coil cover attaching screws and lift off the cover. 3. Remove the four coil attaching screws and lift off the coil. 4. Installation is the reverse of removal. 1982-83 MODELS See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Remove the harness from the ignition coilexcept 4-151 engine 1. Disconnect the harness at the coil. 2. Pulling on the boot, only, pull the coil-to-distributor cap wire from the coil. 3. Remove the three coil mounting screws and lift off the coil. 4. Installation is the reverse of removal. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Ignition Module REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: The ignition control module used on all models except 1987 4150 engines The ignition module is mounted next to the battery on all models. It is a sealed, weatherproof unit. Removing the module, on all models, is a matter of simply removing the fasteners that attach it to the fender or firewall and pulling apart the connectors. When unplugging the connectors, pull them apart with a firm, straight pull, never pry them apart! To pry them will cause damage. When reconnecting them, coat the mating ends with silicone dielectric grease to waterproof the connection. Press the connectors together firmly to overcome any vacuum lock caused by the grease. If the locking tabs weaken or break, don't replace the unit. Just secure the connection with electrical tape or tie straps. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Regulator REMOVAL & INSTALLATION The regulator is sealed at the factory and thus cannot be adjusted. It is mounted to the fender well inside the engine compartment. To remove it, simply unplug it and remove the sheet metal screws holding it in place. See Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Unfasten the electrical connection retaining nut ... Fig. Fig. 2: ... then disengage the electrical connection from the starter motor Fig. Fig. 3: Unfasten the starter motor retaining bolts ... Fig. Fig. 4: ... then remove the starter motor from the vehicle Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Starter REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Disconnect the leads from the starter. 3. Unbolt and remove the starter. 4. Reverse the procedure on installation. COMPONENT REPLACEMENT - Starter Drive AUTOLITE See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the Autolite starter used on all models except the 4-150 and 151 engines 1. Remove the cover of the starter drive's actuating lever arm. Remove the through bolts, starter drive gear housing, and the return spring of the drive gear's actuating lever. 2. Remove the pivot pin which retains the starter gear actuating lever and remove the lever and armature. 3. Remove the stopring retainer. Remove and discard the stopring which holds the drive gear to the armature shaft and then remove the drive gear assembly. To install: 4. Lightly Lubriplate® the armature shaft splines and install the starter drive gear assembly on the shaft. Install a new stopring and stopring retainer. 5. Position the starter drive gear actuating lever to the frame and starter drive assembly. Install the pivot pin. 6. Fill the starter drive gear housing one quarter full of grease. 7. Position the drive actuating lever return spring and the drive gear housing to the frame, then install and tighten the through bolts. Be sure that the stopring retainer is properly seated in the drive housing. DELCO-REMY See Figures 2 through 9 Fig. Fig. 2: Exploded view of the Delco starter used on the 4-151 engine Fig. Fig. 3: Components of the Delco starter used on the 4-150 engine Fig. Fig. 4: Use two pair of pliers to install the starter drive snap ring Fig. Fig. 5: Unfasten the electrical terminals retaining nut ... Fig. Fig. 6: ... and slide the electrical connections off the stud Fig. Fig. 7: Unplug the remaining electrical connections Fig. Fig. 8: Unfasten the bracket retaining bolts ... Fig. Fig. 9: ... then remove the relay from the vehicle 1. Remove the through bolts. 2. Remove the starter drive housing. 3. Slide the two piece thrust collar off the end of the armature shaft. 4. Slide a standard 1 / 2 in. (12.7mm) pipe coupling, or other spacer, onto the shaft so the end of the coupling butts against the edge of the retainer. 5. Tap the end of the coupling with a hammer, driving the retainer toward the armature end of the snapring. 6. Remove the snapring from its groove in the shaft with pliers. Slide the retainer and the starter drive from the armature. To install: 7. Lubricate the drive end of the shaft with silicone lubricant. 8. Slide the drive gear assembly onto the shaft, with the gear facing outward. 9. Slide the retainer onto the shaft with the cupped surface facing away from the gear. 10. Stand the whole starter assembly on a block of wood with the snapring positioned on the upper end of the shaft. Drive the snapring down with a small block of wood and a hammer. Slide the snapring into its groove. 11. Install the thrust collar onto the shaft with the shoulder next to the snapring. 12. With the retainer on one side of the snapring and the thrust collar on the other side, squeeze them together with a pair of pliers until the ring seats in the retainer. On models without a thrust collar, use a washer. Remember to remove the washer before installing the starter in the engine. PRESTOLITE 1. Slide the thrust collar off the armature shaft. 2. Using a standard 1 / 2 in. (12.7mm) pipe connector, drive the snapring retainer off the shaft. 3. Remove the snapring from the groove, and then remove the drive assembly. To install: 4. Lubricate the drive end and splines with Lubriplate®. 5. Install the clutch assembly onto the shaft. 6. Install the snapring retainer with the cupped surface facing toward the end of the shaft. 7. Install the snapring into the groove. Use a new snapring if necessary. 8. Install the thrust collar onto the shaft with the shoulder against the snapring. 9. Force the retainer over the snapring in the same manner as was used for the Delco-Remy starters. Solenoid or Relay REMOTE MOUNTED 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. 2. Unfasten the electrical connection attaching nut. 3. Disengage all the electrical connections. 4. Unfasten the relay bracket bolts and remove the relay. 5. Installation is the reverse of removal. AUTOLITE To remove the solenoid from the starter, remove all of the leads to the solenoid, remove the connecting lever, and remove the attaching bolts that hold the solenoid assembly to the starter housing. Remove the solenoid assembly from the starter housing. To install the solenoid assembly, reverse the above procedure. DELCO-REMY 1. Remove the leads from the solenoid. 2. Remove the drive housing of the starter motor. 3. Remove the shift lever pin and bolt from the shift lever. 4. Remove the attaching bolts that hold the solenoid assembly to the housing of the starter motor. 5. Remove the starter solenoid from the starter housing. 6. To install the solenoid, reverse the above procedure. PRESTOLITE 1. Remove the leads from the solenoid assembly. 2. Remove the attaching bolts that hold the solenoid to the starter housing. 3. Remove the bolt from the shift lever. 4. Remove the solenoid assembly from the starter housing. 5. Reverse the procedure for installation. OVERHAUL Autolite/Motorcraft 1. Remove the cover screw, the cover through-bolts, the starter drive end housing and the starter drive plunger lever return spring. 2. Remove the starter gear plunger lever pivot pin, the lever and the armature. Remove the stop ring retainer and the stop ring from the armature shaft (discard the ring), then the starter drive gear assembly. 3. Remove the brush end plate, the insulator assembly and the brushes from the plastic holder, then lift out the brush holder. For reassembly, note the position of the brush holder with respect to the end terminal. 4. Remove the two ground brush-to-frame screws. 5. Bend up the sleeve's edges which are inserted in the frame's rectangular hole, then remove the sleeve and the retainer. Detach the field coil ground wire from the copper tab. 6. Remove the three coil retaining screws. Cut the field coil connection at the switch post lead, then remove the pole shoes and the coils from the frame. 7. Cut the positive brush leads from the field coils (as close to the field connection point as possible). 8. Check the armature and the armature windings for broken or burned insulation, open circuits or grounds. 9. Check the commutator for runout. If it is rough, has flat spots or is more than 0.005 in. (0.127mm) out of round, reface the commutator face. 10. Inspect the armature shaft and the two bearings for scoring and excessive wear, then replace (if necessary). 11. Inspect the starter drive. If the gear teeth are pitted, broken or excessively worn, replace the starter drive. 1 1 The factory brush length is /2in. (12.7mm); the wear limit is /4in. (6.35mm). To install: 12. Install the starter terminal, the insulator, the washers and the nut in the frame. Be sure to position the screw slot perpendicular to the frame end surface. 13. Position the coils and the pole pieces, with the coil leads in the terminal screw slot, then install the screws. When tightening the pole screws, strike the frame with several sharp hammer blows to align the pole shoes, then stake the screws. 14. Install the solenoid coil and the retainer, then bend the tabs to hold the coils to the frame. 15. Using resin core solder and a 300 watt iron, solder the field coils and the solenoid wire to the starter terminal. Check for continuity and ground connections of the assembled coils. 16. Position the solenoid coil ground terminal over the nearest ground screw hole and the ground brushes-to-starter frame, then install the screws. 17. Apply a thin coating of Lubriplate® on the armature shaft splines. Install the starter motor drive gear assembly-to-armature shaft, followed by a new stop ring and retainer. Install the armature in the starter frame. 18. Position the starter drive gear plunger lever to the frame and the starter drive assembly, then install the pivot pin. Place some grease into the end housing bore. Fill it about 1 / 4 full, then position the drive end housing to the frame. 19. Install the brush holder and the brush springs. The positive brush leads should be positioned in their respective brush holder slots, to prevent grounding problems. 20. Install the brush end plate. Be certain that the end plate insulator is in the proper position on the end plate. Install the two starter frame throughbolts and torque them to 55-75 inch lbs. 21. Install the starter drive plunger lever cover and tighten the retaining screw. Delco-Remy 1. Detach the field coil connectors from the motor solenoid terminal. If equipped, remove the solenoid mounting screws. 2. Remove the through-bolts, the commutator end frame, the field frame and the armature assembly from drive housing. 3. Remove the overrunning clutch from the armature shaft as follows: A. Slide the two piece thrust collar off the end of the armature shaft. B. Slide a standard 1 / 2 " (12.7mm) pipe coupling or other spacer onto the shaft, so that the coupling end butts against the retainer edge. C. Using a hammer, tap the coupling end, driving the retainer towards the armature end of the snapring. D. Using snapring pliers, remove the snapring from its groove in the shaft, then slide the retainer and the clutch from the shaft. 4. Disassemble the field frame brush assembly by releasing the V-spring and removing the support pin. The brush holders, the brushes and the springs can now be pulled out as a unit and the leads disconnected. On the integral frame units, remove the brush holder from the brush support and the brush screw. 5. If equipped, separate the solenoid from the lever housing. 6. Clean the parts with a rag. Do not immerse the parts in a solvent. WARNING Immersion in a solvent will dissolve the grease that is packed in the clutch mechanism. It will damage the armature and the field coil insulation. 7. Test the overrunning clutch action. The pinion should turn freely in the overrunning direction but must not slip in the cranking direction. Check that the pinion teeth have not been chipped, cracked or excessively worn. Replace the unit (if necessary). 8. Inspect the armature commutator. If the commutator is rough or out of round, it should be machined and undercut. 1 Undercut the insulation between the commutator bars by /32in. (0.79375mm). The undercut must be the full width of the insulation and flat at the bottom. A triangular groove will not be satisfactory. Most late model starter motor use a molded armature commutator design. No attempt to undercut the insulation should be made or serious damage may result to the commutator. To install: 9. Install the brushes into the holders, then install solenoid (if equipped). 10. Assemble the insulated and the grounded holder together. Using the V-spring, position and assemble the unit on the support pin. Push the holders and the spring to bottom of the support, then rotate the spring to engage the slot in the support. Attach the ground wire to the grounded brush and the field lead wire to the insulated brush, then repeat this procedure for other brush sets. 11. Assemble the overrunning clutch to the armature shaft as follows: A. Lubricate the drive end of the shaft with silicone lubricant. B. Slide the clutch assembly onto the shaft with the pinion outward. C. Slide the retainer onto the shaft with the cupped surface facing away from the pinion. D. Stand the armature up on a wood surface with the commutator downward. Position the snapring on the upper end of the shaft and drive it onto the shaft with a small block of wood and a hammer, then slide the snapring into groove. E. Install the thrust collar onto the shaft with the shoulder next to snapring. F. With the retainer on one side of the snapring and the thrust collar on the other side, squeeze two sets together (with pliers) until the ring seats in the retainer. On models without a thrust collar use a washer. Remember to remove the washer before continuing. 12. Lubricate the drive end bushing with silicone lubricant, then slide the armature and the clutch assembly into place, while engaging the shift lever with the clutch. On the non-integral starters, the shift lever may be installed in the drive gear housing first. 13. Position the field frame over the armature and apply sealer (silicone) between the frame and the solenoid case. Position the frame against the drive housing, making sure the brushes are not damaged in the process. 14. Lubricate the commutator end bushing with silicone lubricant, place a washer on the armature shaft and slide the commutator end frame onto the shaft. Install the through-bolts and tighten. 15. Reconnect the field coil connections to the solenoid motor terminal. Install the solenoid mounting screws (if equipped). 16. Check the pinion clearance. It should be 0.010-0.140 in. (0.254-3.556mm) with the pinion in the cranking position, on all models. Bosch See Figure 10 Fig. Fig. 10: Exploded view of the Bosch starter motor used on the 4-150 engine1986 models 1. Disconnect the field coil wire from the solenoid terminal. 2. Remove the solenoid and work the plunger off the shift fork. 3. Remove the two end shield bearing cap screws, the cap and the washers. 4. Remove the two commutator end frame cover through-bolts, the cover, the two brushes and the brush plate. 5. Slide the field frame off over the armature. Remove the shift lever pivot bolt, the rubber gasket and the metal plate. 6. Remove the armature assembly and the shift lever from the drive end housing. Press the stop collar off the snapring, then remove the snapring, the clutch assembly, the clutch assembly and the drive end housing from the armature. 7. The brushes that are worn more than 1 / 2 the length of new brushes or are oil soaked, should be replaced. The new brushes are 11 / 16 in. (17.4625mm) long. 8. Do not immerse the starter clutch unit in cleaning solvent. Solvent will wash the lubricant from the clutch. 9. Place the drive unit on the armature shaft, then, while holding the armature, rotate the pinion. The drive pinion should rotate smoothly in one direction only. The pinion may not rotate easily but as long as it rotates smoothly it is in good condition. If the clutch unit does not function properly or if the pinion is worn, chipped or burred, replace the unit. To install: 10. Lubricate the armature shaft and the splines with SAE 10W or 30W oil. 11. Fit the drive end housing onto the armature, then install the clutch, the stop collar and the snapring onto the armature. 12. Install the shift fork pivot bolt, the rubber gasket and the metal plate. Slide the field frame into position and install the brush holder and the brushes. 13. Position the commutator end frame cover and the through-bolts. 14. Install the shim and the armature shaft lock. Check the end-play, which should be 0.002-0.012 in. (0.05-0.30mm), then install the bearing cover. 15. Assemble the plunger to the shift fork, then install the solenoid with its mounting bolts. Connect the field wire to the solenoid. Prestolite 1. To remove the solenoid, remove the screw from the field coil connector and solenoid mounting screws. Rotate the solenoid 90° and remove it along with the plunger return spring. 2. For further service, remove the two through-bolts, then remove the commutator end frame and washer. 3. To replace the clutch and drive assembly proceed as follows: A. Remove the thrust washer or the collar from the armature shaft. B. Slide a 5 / 8 in. (15.875mm) deep socket or a piece of pipe of suitable size over the shaft and against the retainer as a driving tool. Tap the tool to remove the retainer off the snapring. C. Remove the snapring from the groove in the shaft. Check and make sure the snapring isn't distorted. If it is, it will be necessary to replace it with a new one upon reassembly. D. Remove the retainer and clutch assembly from the armature shaft. 4. The shift lever may be disconnected from the plunger at this time by removing the roll pin. 5. On models with the standard starter, the brushes may be removed by removing the brush holder pivot pin which positions one insulated and one grounded brush. Remove the brush and spring and replace the brushes as necessary. 6. On models with the smaller 5MT starter, remove the brush and holder from the brush support, then remove the screw from the brush holder and separate the brush and holder. Replace the brushes as necessary. 7. Installation is the reverse of removal. Assemble the armature and clutch and drive assembly as follows: A. Lubricate the drive end of the armature shaft and slide the clutch assembly onto the armature shaft with the pinion away from the armature. B. Slide the retainer onto the shaft with the cupped side facing the end of the shaft. C. Install the snapring into the groove on the armature shaft. D. Install the thrust washer on the shaft. E. Position the retainer and thrust washer with the snapring in between. Using two pliers, grip the retainer and thrust washer or collar and squeeze until the snapring is forced into the retainer and is held securely in the groove in the armature shaft. F. Lubricate the drive gear housing bushing. G. Engage the shift lever yoke with the clutch and slide the complete assembly into the drive gear housing. When the starter motor has been disassembled or the solenoid has been replaced, it is necessary to check the pinion clearance. Pinion clearance must be correct to prevent the buttons on the shift lever yoke from rubbing on the clutch collar during cranking. Checking Pinion Clearance 1. Disconnect the motor field coil connector from the solenoid motor terminal and insulate it carefully. 2. Connect one 12 volt battery lead to the solenoid switch terminal and the other to the starter frame. 3. Flash a jumper lead momentarily from the solenoid motor terminal to the starter frame. This will shift the pinion into cranking position and it will remain there until the battery is disconnected. Push the pinion back as far as possible to take up any movement, and check the clearance with a feeler gauge. The clearance should be 0.010-0.140 in. (0.254-3.556mm). 4. There is no means for adjusting pinion clearance on the starter motor. If clearance does not fall within the limits, check for improper installation and replace all worn parts. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Understanding Electricity For any electrical system to operate, there must be a complete circuit. This simply means that the power flow from the battery must make a full circle. When an electrical component is operating, power flows from the battery to the components, passes through the component (load) causing it to function, and returns to the battery through the ground path of the circuit. This ground may be either another wire or a metal part of the vehicle (depending upon how the component is designed). See Figure 1 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Here is an example of a simple automotive circuit. When the switch is closed, power from the positive battery terminal flows through the fuse, the switch and then the load (light bulb). The light illuminates and the circuit is completed through the return conductor and the vehicle ground. If the light did not work, the tests could be made with a voltmeter or test light at the battery, fuse, switch or bulb socket BASIC CIRCUITS Perhaps the easiest way to visualize a circuit is to think of connecting a light bulb (with two wires attached to it) to the battery. If one of the two wires was attached to the negative post (-) of the battery and the other wire to the positive post (+), the circuit would be complete and the light bulb would illuminate. Electricity could follow a path from the battery to the bulb and back to the battery. It's not hard to see that with longer wires on our light bulb, it could be mounted anywhere on the vehicle. Further, one wire could be fitted with a switch so that the light could be turned on and off. Various other items could be added to our primitive circuit to make the light flash, become brighter or dimmer under certain conditions, or advise the user that it's burned out. Ground Some automotive components are grounded through their mounting points. The electrical current runs through the chassis of the vehicle and returns to the battery through the ground (-) cable; if you look, you'll see that the battery ground cable connects between the battery and the body of the vehicle. Load Every complete circuit must include a "load" (something to use the electricity coming from the source). If you were to connect a wire between the two terminals of the battery (DON'T do this, but take our word for it) without the light bulb, the battery would attempt to deliver its entire power supply from one pole to another almost instantly. This is a short circuit. The electricity is taking a short cut to get to ground and is not being used by any load in the circuit. This sudden and uncontrolled electrical flow can cause great damage to other components in the circuit and can develop a tremendous amount of heat. A short in an automotive wiring harness can develop sufficient heat to melt the insulation on all the surrounding wires and reduce a multiple wire cable to one sad lump of plastic and copper. Two common causes of shorts are broken insulation (thereby exposing the wire to contact with surrounding metal surfaces or other wires) or a failed switch (the pins inside the switch come out of place and touch each other). See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Damaged insulation can allow wires to break (causing an open circuit) or touch (causing a short circuit) Switches and Relays Some electrical components which require a large amount of current to operate also have a relay in their circuit. Since these circuits carry a large amount of current (amperage or amps), the thickness of the wire in the circuit (wire gauge) is also greater. If this large wire were connected from the load to the control switch on the dash, the switch would have to carry the high amperage load and the dash would be twice as large to accommodate wiring harnesses as thick as your wrist. To prevent these problems, a relay is used. The large wires in the circuit are connected from the battery to one side of the relay and from the opposite side of the relay to the load. The relay is normally open, preventing current from passing through the circuit. An additional, smaller wire is connected from the relay to the control switch for the circuit. When the control switch is turned on, it grounds the smaller wire to the relay and completes its circuit. The main switch inside the relay closes, sending power to the component without routing the main power through the inside of the vehicle. Some common circuits which may use relays are the horn, headlights, starter and rear window defogger systems. Protective Devices It is possible for larger surges of current to pass through the electrical system of your vehicle. If this surge of current were to reach the load in the circuit, it could burn it out or severely damage it. To prevent this, fuses, circuit breakers and/or fusible links are connected into the supply wires of the electrical system. These items are nothing more than a built-in weak spot in the system. It's much easier to go to a known location (the fusebox) to see why a circuit is inoperative than to dissect 15 feet of wiring under the dashboard, looking for what happened. When an electrical current of excessive power passes through the fuse, the fuse blows (the conductor melts) and breaks the circuit, preventing the passage of current and protecting the components. A circuit breaker is basically a self repairing fuse. It will open the circuit in the same fashion as a fuse, but when either the short is removed or the surge subsides, the circuit breaker resets itself and does not need replacement. A fuse link (fusible link or main link) is a wire that acts as a fuse. One of these is normally connected between the starter relay and the main wiring harness under the hood. Since the starter is usually the highest electrical draw on the vehicle, an internal short during starting could direct about 130 amps into the wrong places. Consider the damage potential of introducing this current into a system whose wiring is rated at 15 amps and you'll understand the need for protection. Since this link is very early in the electrical path, it's the first place to look if nothing on the vehicle works, but the battery seems to be charged and is properly connected. See Figures 3, 4 and 5 Fig. Fig. 3: A 12 volt test light is useful when checking parts of a circuit for power Fig. Fig. 4: Here, someone is checking a circuit by making sure there is power to the component's fuse Fig. Fig. 5: Jumper wires with various connectors are handy for quick electrical testing TROUBLESHOOTING Electrical problems generally fall into one of three areas: The component that is not functioning is not receiving current. The component is receiving power but is not using it or is using it incorrectly (component failure). The component is improperly grounded. The circuit can be can be checked with a test light and a jumper wire. The test light is a device that looks like a pointed screwdriver with a wire on one end and a bulb in its handle. A jumper wire is simply a piece of wire with alligator clips or special terminals on each end. If a component is not working, you must follow a systematic plan to determine which of the three causes is the villain. 1. Turn ON the switch that controls the item not working. Some items only work when the ignition switch is turned ON. 2. Disconnect the power supply wire from the component. 3. Attach the ground wire of a test light or a voltmeter to a good metal ground. 4. Touch the end probe of the test light (or the positive lead of the voltmeter) to the power wire; if there is current in the wire, the light in the test light will come on (or the voltmeter will indicate the amount of voltage). You have now established that current is getting to the component. 5. Turn the ignition or dash switch OFF and reconnect the wire to the component. If there was no power, then the problem is between the battery and the component. This includes all the switches, fuses, relays and the battery itself. The next place to look is the fusebox; check carefully either by eye or by using the test light across the fuse clips. The easiest way to check is to simply replace the fuse. If the fuse is blown, and upon replacement, immediately blows again, there is a short between the fuse and the component. This is generally (not always) a sign of an internal short in the component. Disconnect the power wire at the component again and replace the fuse; if the fuse holds, the component is the problem. WARNING DO NOT test a component by running a jumper wire from the battery UNLESS you are certain that it operates on 12 volts. Many electronic components are designed to operate with less voltage and connecting them to 12 volts could destroy them. Jumper wires are best used to bypass a portion of the circuit (such as a stretch of wire or a switch) that DOES NOT contain a resistor and is suspected to be bad. If all the fuses are good and the component is not receiving power, find the switch for the circuit. Bypass the switch with the jumper wire. This is done by connecting one end of the jumper to the power wire coming into the switch and the other end to the wire leaving the switch. If the component comes to life, the switch has failed. WARNING Never substitute the jumper for the component. The circuit needs the electrical load of the component. If you bypass it, you will cause a short circuit. Checking the ground for any circuit can mean tracing wires to the body, cleaning connections or tightening mounting bolts for the component itself. If the jumper wire can be connected to the case of the component or the ground connector, you can ground the other end to a piece of clean, solid metal on the vehicle. Again, if the component starts working, you've found the problem. A systematic search through the fuse, connectors, switches and the component itself will almost always yield an answer. Loose and/or corroded connectors, particularly in ground circuits, are becoming a larger problem in modern vehicles. The computers and on-board electronic (solid state) systems are highly sensitive to improper grounds and will change their function drastically if one occurs. Remember that for any electrical circuit to work, ALL the connections must be clean and tight. For more information on Understanding and Troubleshooting Electrical Systems, please refer to Chassis Electrical of this guide. Back to Top Emission Controls AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Air Injection System DESCRIPTION Print The exhaust emission air injection system consists of a belt driven air pump which directs compressed air through connecting hoses to a steel distribution manifold into stainless steel injection tubes in the exhaust port adjacent to each exhaust valve. The air, with its normal oxygen content, reacts with the hot, but incompletely burned exhaust gases and permits further combustion in the exhaust port or manifold. Air Pump See Figures 1, 2 and 3 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the air pump mounting4-150 engine Fig. Fig. 2: Common air pump system used on all models except 8-cylinder engines Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of the air injection system components used on 8-cylinder engines The air injection pump is a positive displacement vane type which is permanently lubricated and requires little periodic maintenance. The only serviceable parts on the air pump are the filter, exhaust tube, and relief valve. The relief valve relieves the air flow when the pump pressure reaches a preset level. This occurs at high engine rpm. This serves to prevent damage to the pump and to limit maximum exhaust manifold temperatures. Pump Air Filter The air filter attached to the pump is a replaceable element type. The filter should be replaced every 12,000 miles under normal conditions and sooner under off-road use. Some models draw their air supply through the carburetor air filter. Air Delivery Manifold See Figure 4 Fig. Fig. 4: Location of the air diverter valve and manifold4-150 engine The air delivery manifold distributes the air from the pump to each of the air delivery tubes in a uniform manner. A check valve is integral with the air delivery manifold. Its function is to prevent the reverse flow of exhaust gases to the pump should the pump fail. This reverse flow would damage the air pump and connecting hose. Air Injection Tubes The air injection tubes are inserted into the exhaust ports. The tubes project into the exhaust ports, directing air into the vicinity of the exhaust valve. Anti-Backfire Valve The anti-backfire diverter valve prevents engine backfire by briefly interrupting the air being injected into the exhaust manifold during periods of deceleration or rapid throttle closure. The valve opens when a sudden increase in manifold vacuum overcomes the diaphragm spring tension. With the valve in the open position, the air flow from the air pump is directed to the atmosphere. On the 1972 6-232 engine, the anti-backfire valve is what is commonly called a gulp valve. During rapid deceleration the valve is opened by the sudden high vacuum condition in the intake manifold and gulps air into the intake manifold. Both of these valves prevent backfiring in the exhaust manifold. Both valves also prevent an over right fuel mixture from being burned in the exhaust manifold, which would cause backfiring and possible damage to the engine. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Air Pump WARNING Never place the pump is a vise or attempt to dismantle it. The pump has no internal parts that are replaceable and it is serviced as a unit. Never pry or hammer on the pump housing. 1. Loosen the bolts on the pump pulley. 2. Loosen the air pump attachment racket. On V8 models with air conditioning, loosen the power steering pump to aid in drive belt removal. 3. Detach the air supply hoses at the pump. 4. Remove the drivebelt and pulley from the hub. 5. Unfasten the bolts on the bracket and remove the pump. To install: 6. Place the pump on its mounting bracket and install, but so not tighten the attachment volts. 7. With the rotor shaft used as a center, fit the pulley into the hub and install the drive belt over the pulley. 8. Tighten the pulley attachment bolts, using care not to snap them off. 9. Adjust the pump until the belt is secure. Tighten the mounting bolts and the adjusting screw to 18-22 ft. lbs. Do not overtighten. 10. Attach the hoses and clamps. Air Pump Relief Valve 1. Use a gear pulley and a steel bridge to remove the relief valve from the pump. 2. Remove the pressure plug from the new relief valve assembly. 3. Insert the relief valve into it housing mounting hole. 4. Place a block of wood over the valve. Use a hammer to tap the valve until it lightly registers against the housing. Use care not to distort the housing. 5. Press the pressure plug into the center of the relief valve. Centrifugal Filter Fan Never attempt to clean the filter fan. It is impossible to remove the fan without destroying it. 1. Remove the air pump from the car, as detailed above. 2. Gently pry the outer disc off and pull off the remaining portion. Be careful that no fragments from the fan enter the pump air intake. To install: 3. Install a new filter fan pulling it into place with the pump pulley and attaching bolts. 4. Alternately tighten the bolts so that the fan is drawn down evenly. Be sure that the outer edge of the fan fits into the pump housing. WARNING Never hammer or press the fan into place; damage to it and the pump will result. 5. Install the pump on the car. For the first 20-30 minutes of operation, the fan may squeal until its lip has worn in. This is normal and does not indicate a damaged pump. Exhaust Tube 1. Remove the exhaust tube by grasping it (never the pump body) in a vise or a pair of pliers. Pull the tube out with a gentle twisting motion. 2. Install the new exhaust tube by tapping it into the hole with a hammer and a wooden block. Be careful not to damage its end. 3. Tap it until 7 / 8 in. (22.23mm) of the tube remains above the pump cover. Do not clamp the pump in a vise while installing the exhaust tube. By-Pass (Diverter Valve) 1. Disconnect the hoses from the valve. 2. Remove the screws that attach the valve bracket to the engine. Remove the valve and bracket assembly. 3. Installation is the reverse of removal. Air Injection Manifold and Check Valve Assembly 6-232 AND 258 ENGINES 1. Remove the intake/exhaust manifold assembly, after disconnecting the hoses from the air injection manifold. 2. Place the assembly in a vise and unfasten the retaining nuts on the air injection manifold at each cylinder exhaust port. 3. Lightly tap the injection tubes, then pull the injection manifold away from the exhaust manifold. 4. If the tubes have become fused to the injection manifold, remove them by applying heat while rotating them with pliers. To install: 5. Insert new air injection tubes into the exhaust manifold. The shorter tubes of into the Nos. 3 and 4 cylinders. 6. Using a new gasket, assemble the exhaust/intake manifold to the engine. 7. Using new gaskets, install the air injection manifold on to the exhaust manifold in the reverse order of removal. V8 ENGINES 1. Detach the air delivery hose at the check valve. 2. Unfasten the air injection manifold attachment nuts from the cylinder head. Carefully, ease the air injection manifold away from the heat. On some models it may be necessary to lower the bottom steering shaft clamp to gain access to the left rear mounting bolt; or to disconnect the right engine support and raise the engine to remove the right air injection manifold assembly. 3. On newer cars, the air injection tubes and the manifold are removed as an assembly. 4. On older models, or if the tubes are hard to remove, use a screw extractor to twist the tube out gradually. Some interference may be encountered because of the normal carbon buildup on the tubes. Injection tubes which are removed with a screw extractor must be replaced with new ones. 5. Installation is the reverse of removal. TROUBLESHOOTING WARNING Do not hammer on, pry, or bend the pump housing while tightening the drive belt or testing the pump.Belt Tension and Air Leaks 1. Check the pump drive belt tension. There should be about 1 / 2 in. (12.7mm) play in the longest span of belt between pulleys. 2. Turn the pump by hand. If it has seized, the belt will slip, producing noise. Disregard any chirping, squealing, or rolling sounds from inside the pump; these are normal when it is turned by hand. 3. Check the hoses and connections for leaks. Hissing or a blast of air is indicative of a leak. Soapy water, applied lightly around the area in question, is a good method for detecting leaks. Air Output Tests 1. Disconnect the air supply hose at the antibackfire valve. 2. Connect a vacuum pressure gauge to the air supply hose. If there are two hoses plug the second one. 3. With the engine at normal operating temperature, increase the idle speed and watch the gauge. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Anti-Dieseling Solenoid TESTING Print Anti-dieseling solenoids are also referred to as, `throttle stop' or `idle stop' solenoids. 1. Turn the ignition key ON and open the throttle. The solenoid plunger should extend (solenoid energized). 2. Turn the ignition OFF. The plunger should retract, allowing the throttle to close. With the anti-dieseling solenoid deenergized, the carburetor idle speed adjusting screw must make contact with the throttle shaft to prevent the throttle plates from jamming in the throttle bore when the engine is turned off. 3. If the solenoid is functioning properly and the engine is still dieseling, check for one of the following: A. High idle or engine shut off speed. B. Engine timing not set to specifications. Correct any of these problems, as necessary. 4. If the solenoid fails to function as outlined in steps 1-2, disconnect the solenoid leads; the solenoid should de-energize. If it does not, it is jammed and must be replaced. 5. Connect the solenoid to a 12 volt power source and to ground. Open the throttle so that the plunger can extend. If it does not, the solenoid is defective. 6. If the solenoid is functioning correctly and no other source of trouble can be found, the fault probably lies in the wiring between the solenoid and the ignition switch or in the ignition switch itself. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Crankcase Emission Controls OPERATION Print See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Common Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) system used on AMC vehicles-inline engine shown The crankcase emission control equipment consists of a Positive Crankcase Ventilation valve (PCV), a closed or open oil filler cap and hoses to connect this equipment. When the engine is running, a small portion of the gases which are formed in the combustion chamber during combustion, leak by the piston rings and enter the crankcase. Since these gases are under pressure, they tend to escape from the crankcase and enter the atmosphere. If these gases were allowed to remain in the crankcase for any length of time, they would contaminate the engine oil and cause sludge to build up. If the gases were allowed to escape into the atmosphere, they would pollute the air, as they contain unburned hydrocarbons. The crankcase emission control equipment recycles these gases back into the engine combustion chamber where they are burned. Crankcase gases are recycled in the following manner: while the engine is running, clean filtered air is drawn into the crankcase either directly through the oil filler cap, or through the carburetor air filter and then through a hose leading to the oil filler cap. As the air passes through the crankcase, it picks up the combustion gases and carries them out of the crankcase, up through the PCV valve and into the intake manifold. After they enter the intake manifold, they are drawn into the combustion chamber and burned. The most critical component in the system is the PCV valve. This vacuum controlled valve regulates the amount of gases which are recycled into the combustion chamber. At low engine speeds, the valve is partially closed, limiting the flow of gases into the intake manifold. As engine speed increases, the valve opens to admit greater quantities of the gases into the intake manifold. If the valve should become blocked or plugged, the gases will be prevented from escaping from the crankcases by the normal route. Since these gases are under pressure, they will find their own way out of the crankcase. This alternate route is usually a weak oil seal or gasket in the engine. As the gas escapes by the gasket, it also creates an oil leak. Besides causing oil leaks, a clogged PCV valve also allows these gases to remain in the crankcase for an extended period of time, promoting the formation of sludge in the engine. The above explanation and the troubleshooting procedure which follows applies to all engines with PCV systems. TESTING With the engine running, pull the PCV valve and hose from the engine. Block off the end of the valve with your finger. The engine speed should drop at least 50 rpm when the end of the valve is blocked. If the engine speed does not drop at least 50 rpm, then the valve is defective and should be replaced. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 1. Pull the PCV valve and hose from the engine. 2. Remove the PCV valve from the hose. Inspect the inside of the PCV valve from the hose. If it is dirty, disconnect it from the intake manifold and clean it. 3. If the PCV valve hose was removed, connect it to the intake manifold. 4. Connect the PCV valve to its hose. 5. Install the PCV valve on the engine. See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Check the PCV valve for vacuum at idle Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Distributor Controls DUAL DIAPHRAGM DISTRIBUTOR TEST Print 1. Connect a timing light to the engine. Check the ignition timing. First disconnect any spark control devices, distributor vacuum valves, etc. If these are left connected, inaccurate results may be obtained. 2. Remove the retard hose from the distributor and plug it. Increase the engine speed. The timing should advance. It if fails to do so, then the vacuum unit is faulty and must be replaced. 3. Check the timing with the engine at normal idle speed. Unplug the retard hose and connect it to the vacuum unit. The timing should instantly be retarded from 4-10. If this does not occur, the retard diaphragm has a leak and the vacuum unit must be replaced. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Electric Assist Choke OPERATION Print An electric assist choke is used to more accurately match the choke operation to engine requirements. It provides extra heat to the choke bimetal spring to speed up the choke valve opening after the underhood air temperature reaches 95°F ± 15°F (35°C). Its purpose is to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide (CO) during the engine's warmup period. A special AC terminal is provided at the alternator to supply a 7 volt power source for the electric choke. A thermostatic switch within the choke cover closes when the underhood air temperature reaches 95°F ± 15°F (35°C) and allows current to flow to a ceramic heating element. The circuit is completed through the choke cover ground strap and choke housing to the engine. As the heating element warms up, heat is absorbed by an attached metal plate which in turn heats the choke bimetal spring. After the engine is turned off, the thermostatic switch remains closed until the underhood temperature drops below approximately 65°F (18°C). Therefore, the heating element will immediately begin warming up when the engine is restarted, if the underhood temperature is above 65°F (18°C). TESTING 1. Detach the electrical lead from the choke cap. 2. Use a jumper lead to connect the terminal on the choke cap and the wire terminal, so that the electrical circuit is still completed. 3. Start the engine. 4. Hook up a test light between the connector on the choke lead and ground. 5. The test light should glow. If it does not, current is not being supplied to the electrically assisted choke. 6. Connect the test light between the terminal on the alternator and the terminal on the choke cap. If the light now glows, replace the lead, since it is not passing current to the choke assist. CAUTION Do not ground the terminal on the alternator while performing Step 6. 7. If the light still does not glow, the fault lies somewhere in the electrical system. If the electrically assisted choke receives power, but still does not appear to be functioning properly, reconnect the choke lead and proceed with the rest of the test. 8. Tape the bulb end of a thermometer to the metallic portion of the choke housing. 9. If the electrically assisted choke operates below 55°F (13°C), it is defective and must be replaced. 10. Allow the engine to warm up to between 80°F and 110°F (27-43°C); at these temperatures the choke should operate for about 1 1 / 2 minutes. 11. If it does not operate for this length of time, check the bi-metallic spring to see if it is connected to the tang on the choke lever. 12. If the spring is connected and the choke is not operating properly, replace the cap assembly. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System OPERATION Print See Figures 1 through 7 Fig. Fig. 1: Common EGR system components1975-79 8-cylinder engines Fig. Fig. 2: Location of the EGR system components1975-79 6 cylinder engines Fig. Fig. 3: Typical EGR system used on 8 cylinder engines1980-88 models Fig. Fig. 4: EGR system used the 4-151 engine Fig. Fig. 5: EGR system component locations1980-82 6 cylinder engines Fig. Fig. 6: Location of the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve Fig. Fig. 7: Some EGR valves may be tested using a vacuum pump by watching for diaphragm movement The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system consists of a diaphragm actuated flow control valve (EGR valve), coolant temperature override switch, low temperature vacuum signal modulator, high temperature vacuum signal modulator. All 1977 and later California units have a back pressure sensor which modulates EGR signal vacuum according to the rise or fall of exhaust pressure in the manifold. A restrictor plate is not used in these applications. The purpose of the EGR system is to limit the formation of nitrogen oxides by diluting the fresh air intake charge with a metered amount of exhaust gas, thereby reducing the peak temperatures of the burning gases in the combustion chambers. EGR Valve The EGR valve is mounted on a machined surface at the rear of the intake manifold on the V8s and on the side of the intake manifold on the sixes. The valve is held in a normally closed position by a coil spring located above the diaphragm. A special fitting is provided at the carburetor to route ported (above the throttle plates) vacuum through hose connections to a fitting located above the diaphragm on the valve. A passage in the intake manifold directs exhaust gas from the exhaust crossover passage (V8) or from below the riser area (Sixes) to the EGR valve. When the diaphragm is actuated by vacuum, the valve opens and meters exhaust gas through another passage in the intake manifold to the floor of the intake manifold below the carburetor. Coolant Temperature Override Switch This switch is located in the intake manifold at the coolant passage adjacent to the oil filler tube on the V8s or at the left side of the engine block (formerly the drain plug) on the Sixes. The outer port of the switch is open and not used. The inner port is connected by a hose to fitting at the carburetor. The center port is connected to the EGR valve. When coolant temperature is below 115°F (46°C) (160°F (71°C) on the 8-304 with manual transmission), the center port of the switch is closed and no vacuum signal is applied to the EGR valve. Therefore, no exhaust gas will flow through the valve. When the coolant temperature reaches 115°F (46°C), both the center port and the inner port of the switch are open and a vacuum signal is applied to the EGR valve. This vacuum signal is, however, subject to regulation by the low and high temperature signal modulators. Low Temperature Vacuum Signal Modulator This unit is located just to the right of the radiator behind the grill opening. The low temperature vacuum signal modulator vacuum hose is connected by a plastic T-fitting to the EGR vacuum signal hose. The modulator is open when ambient temperatures are below 60°F (16°C). This causes a weakened vacuum signal to the EGR valve and a resultant decrease in the amount of exhaust gas being recirculated. High Temperature Vacuum Signal Modulator This unit is located at the right front fender inner panel. The high temperature vacuum signal modulator is connected to the EGR vacuum signal hose by a plastic T-fitting. The modulator opens when the underhood air temperatures reach 115°F (46°C) and it causes a weakened vacuum signal to the EGR valve, thus reducing the amount of exhaust gases being recirculated. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION - EGR Valve 1. Remove the air cleaner assembly from the carburetor. 2. Unfasten the vacuum line from the top of the EGR valve. 3. Loosen and remove the two screws which secure the valve to the manifold. 4. Remove the EGR valve, complete with its gasket. 5. Installation of the EGR valve is the reverse of its removal. Always use a new gasket. Tighten the valve securing bolts to 13 ft. lbs. Valve and Passage Cleaning 1. Remove the EGR valve. 2. Use a wire brush to clean all the deposits from the stainless steel pintle. 3. Press down on the pintle to open the EGR valve and them release it to close the valve. Replace the valve assembly if it will not close fully. 4. Inspect the manifold passages. If necessary, clean them with a spiral wire brush. 9 On 6-cylinder engines, deposits will build up most rapidly in the upper passage. If the deposits cannot be removed with the wire brush, use a /16in. (14mm) drill bit. Rotate the drill by hand, after coating it with heavy grease. 5. Install the EGR valve with a new gasket. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Fuel Tank Vapor Emission Control System OPERATION Print A closed fuel tank system is used on some 1975-78, and all 1979 and later models, to route raw fuel vapor from the fuel tank into the PCV system (sixes) or air cleaner snorkle (V8s), where it is burned along with the fuel/air mixture. The system prevents raw fuel vapors from entering the atmosphere. The fuel vapor system consists of internal fuel tank venting, a vacuum-pressure fuel tank filler cap, an expansion tank or charcoal filled canister, liquid limit fill valve, and internal carburetor venting. Fuel vapor pressure in the fuel tank forces the vapor through vent lines to the expansion tank or charcoal filled storage canister. The vapor then travels through a single vent line to the limit fill valve, which regulates the vapor flow to the valve cover or air cleaner. Limit Fill Valve This valve is essentially a combination vapor flow regulator and pressure relief valve. It regulates vapor flow from the fuel tank vent line into the valve cover. The valve consists of a housing, a spring loaded diaphragm and a diaphragm cover. As tank vent pressure increases, the diaphragm lifts, permitting vapor to flow through. The pressure at which this occurs is 4-6 in. H 2 O column. This action regulates the flow of vapors under severe conditions, but generally prohibits the flow of vapor during normal temperature operation, thus minimizing driveability problems. Liquid Check Valve The liquid check valve prevents liquid fuel from entering the vapor lines leading to the storage canister. The check valve incorporates a float and needle valve assembly. If liquid fuel should enter the check valve, the float will rise and force the needle upward to close the vent passage. With no liquid fuel present in the check valve, fuel vapors pass freely from the tank, through the check valve, and on to the storage canister. TROUBLESHOOTING There are several things to check for it a malfunction of the evaporative emission control system is suspected. 1. Leaks may be traced by using an infrared hydrocarbon tester. Run the test probe along the lines and connections. The meter will indicate the presence of a leak by a high hydrocarbon (HC) reading. This method is much more accurate than a visual inspection which would indicate only the presence of a leak large enough to pass liquid. 2. Leaks may be caused by any of the following, so always check these areas when looking for them: A. Defective or worn lines. B. Disconnected or pinched lines. C. Improperly routed lines. D. A defective filler cap. If it becomes necessary to replace any of the lines used in the evaporative emission control system, use only hoses which are fuel resistant or are marked `EVAP'. 3. If the fuel tank has collapsed, it may be the fault of clogged or pinched vent lines, a defective vapor separator, or a plugged or incorrect fuel filler cap. 4. To test the filler cap, clean it and place it against the mouth. Blow into the relief valve housing. If the cap passes pressure with light blowing or if it fails to release with hard blowing, it is defective and must be replaced. See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Location of the Evaporative Emission Control canister Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Thermostatically Controlled Air Cleaner System (TAC) OPERATION Print This system consists of a heat shroud which is integral with the right side exhaust manifold, a hot air hose and a special air cleaner assembly equipped with a thermal sensor and a vacuum motor and air valve assembly. The thermal sensor incorporates an air bleed valve which regulates the amount of vacuum applied to the vacuum motor, controlling the air valve position to supply either heated air from the exhaust manifold or air from the engine compartment. During the warm-up period when underhood temperatures are low, the air bleed valve is closed and sufficient vacuum is applied to the vacuum motor to hold the air valve in the closed (heat on) position. As the temperature of the air entering the air cleaner approaches approximately 115°F (46°C), the air bleed valve opens to decrease the amount of vacuum applied to the vacuum motor. The diaphragm spring in the vacuum motor then moves the air valve into the open (heat off) position, allowing only underhood air to enter the air cleaner. The air valve in the air cleaner will also open, regardless of air temperature, during heavy acceleration to obtain maximum air flow through the air cleaner. TROUBLESHOOTING Non Vacuum-Operated Air Door Test See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Sectional view of the non-vacuum controlled thermostatic air cleaner operation 1. Unfasten the temperature sensing valve and snorkle assembly from the air cleaner. Place it in a container of cold water. Make sure that the thermostat is completely covered with water. 2. Place a thermometer, of known accuracy, in the water. Heat the water slowly and watch the temperature. 3. At 105°F or less, the door should be closed (manifold heat position). 4. Continue heating the water until it reaches 130°F. The door should be fully open to the outside air position. 5. If the door does not open at or near this temperature, check it for binding or a detached spring. If the door doesn't open or close properly, the sensor is defective and must be replaced. This usually requires that the entire snorkle assembly must be replaced. Vacuum-Operated Air Door Test See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: View of a vacuum controlled thermostatic air cleaner operation 1. Either start with a cold engine or remove the air cleaner from the engine for at least half an hour. While cooling the air cleaner, leave the hood open. 2. Tape a thermometer, of know accuracy, to the inside of the air cleaner so that it is near the temperature sensor unit. Install the air cleaner on the engine but do not fasten its securing nut. 3. Start the engine. With the engine cold and the outside temperature less than 90°F, the door should be in the `heat-on' position (closed to outside air). Due to the position of the air cleaner on some cars, a mirror may be necessary when observing the position of the air door. 4. Operate the throttle rapidly to 1 /2- 3 / 4 of its opening and release it. The air door should open to allow outside air to enter and then close again. 5. Allow the engine to warm up to normal temperature. Watch the door. When it opens to the outside air, remove the cover from the air cleaner. The temperature should be over 90°F and no more than 130°F; 115°F is about normal. If the door does not work within these temperature ranges, or fails to work at all, check for linkage or door binding. If there is no binding and the air door is not working, proceed with the vacuum test below. If these indicate no faults in the vacuum motor and the door is not working, the temperature sensor is defective and must be replaced. Vacuum Motor Test Be sure that the vacuum hose that runs between the temperature switch and the vacuum motor is not pinched by the retaining clip under the air cleaner. This could prevent the air door from closing. 1. Check all of the vacuum lines and fittings for leaks. Correct any leaks. If none are found, proceed with the test. 2. Remove the hose which runs from the sensor to the vacuum motor. Run a hose directly from the manifold vacuum source to the vacuum motor. 3. If the motor closes the air door, it is functioning properly and the temperature sensor is defective. 4. If the motor does not close the door and no binding is present in its operations, the vacuum motor is defective and must be replaced. If an alternate vacuum source is applied to the motor, insert a vacuum gauge in the line by using a T-fitting. Apply at least 9 in.Hg of vacuum in order to operate the motor. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Transmission Controlled Spark (TCS) System OPERATION Print See Figures 1, 2 and 3 Fig. Fig. 1: Electrical schematic of the Transmission Controlled Spark (TCS) system operation Fig. Fig. 2: TCS system component locations6 cylinder engines Fig. Fig. 3: TCS system schematic and component locations used on 8 cylinder engines The purpose of this system is to reduce the emission of oxides of nitrogen by lowering the peak combustion pressure and temperature during the power stroke. Ambient Temperature Override Switch This switch, located at the firewall, senses ambient temperatures and completes the electrical circuit from the battery to the solenoid vacuum valve when the ambient temperatures are above 63°F (17°C). Solenoid Vacuum Valve This valve is attached to the ignition coil bracket at the right side of the engine (V8 engines) or to a bracket at the rear of the intake manifold (Sixes). When the valve is energized, carburetor vacuum is blocked off and the distributor vacuum line is vented to the atmosphere through a port in the valve, resulting in no vacuum advance. When the valve is de-energized, vacuum is applied to the distributor resulting in normal vacuum advance. Solenoid Control Switch This switch is located in the transmission valve body. It opens or closes in relation to car speed and gear range. When the transmission is in high gear, the switch opens and breaks the ground circuit to the solenoid vacuum valve. In lower gear ranges the switch closes and completes the ground circuit to the solenoid vacuum valve. With a manual transmission, the switch is operated by the transmission shifter shaft. With automatic transmissions, the switch is controlled by the speedometer gear speed. Under speeds of 25 mph, the switch is activated. Coolant Temperature Override Switch This switch is used only on the 8-304 engine. It is threaded into the thermostat housing. The switch reacts to coolant temperatures to route either intake manifold or carburetor vacuum to the distributor vacuum advance diaphragm. When the coolant temperature is below 160°F (71°C), intake manifold vacuum is applied through a hose connection to the distributor advance diaphragm, resulting in the full vacuum advance. When the coolant temperature is above 160°F (71°C), intake manifold vacuum is blocked off and carburetor vacuum is then applied through the solenoid vacuum valve to the distributor advance diaphragm, resulting in decreased vacuum advance. The relationship between distributor vacuum advance and the operation of the TCS system and coolant temperature override switch can be determined by referring to the Emission Control Distributor Vacuum Application Charts. TESTING - System Test MANUAL TRANSMISSION 1. Connect a vacuum gauge between the distributor and the solenoid vacuum valve, using a T-connector. This won't work unless the temperature switch on the front crossmember is above 63°F. 2. Start the engine. With the transmission in Neutral, the vacuum gauge should ready zero. 3. Increase engine speed to between 1000-1500 rpm with the clutch pedal depressed. The vacuum reading should remain at zero. 4. With the clutch still depressed, place the transmission in High gear. Increase engine speed, as before. The vacuum gauge should now read at least 6 in. Hg. If it does not, proceed further with testing. 5. Unfasten the transmission switch lead from the solenoid vacuum valve terminal. Connect the lead in series with a low amperage test lamp and the positive side of the battery. 6. Move the shift lever through all of the gears. The test lamp should remain on until high gear is entered. 7. If the lamp stays on when the transmission is in High, either the switch is defective or the circuit is grounded. If it fails to come on at all, the switch is defective or the circuit has a loose wire. 8. If the transmission switch is functioning properly but the system check indicates that something is still wrong, check the temperature switch. AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION The spark control system is controlled by a switch which operates on transmission governor oil pressure. 1. Disconnect the electrical lead from the terminal of the governor pressure switch. The switch may easily be reached with the hood opened. On sixes, the switch is located on the right rear of the cylinder block; on V8's, it is attached to a bracket at the rear of the right-hand rocker cover. 2. Connect a 12V test light in series, between the lead and the terminal on the switch. WARNING Use a low amperage test light, so that the switch contacts will not be damaged. 3. Raise the car, block the front wheels (if they are not off the ground), and securely support it so that the rear wheels are free to turn. 4. Apply the service brakes. Start the engine. The test light should glow. 5. Place the gear selector in Drive, release the brake pedal and slowly depress the gas pedal. 6. Watch the speedometer and the test light; between 33-37 mph the switch should open and the test light should go out. 7. If the light does not go out within this speed range, adjust the switch by turning the 1 / 16 in. allen screw on the switch terminal. Turn the screw clockwise to increase or counter-clockwise to decrease the switch cut-out sped. The switch should be adjusted to open at 35 mph. 8. If the switch cannot be adjusted, replace it. 9. If the switch is working properly, but the TCS system is not working, the solenoid vacuum valve is probably defective. Transmission Switch 1. Leave the rear wheels of the car off the ground as in the system test above. 2. Disconnect the transmission switch leads. Connect a low amperage test lamp in series with the switch and the positive side of the battery. 3. Accelerate to the speed specified in Step 3 of the system test and watch the test lamp. It should remain on until the specified speed is reached. If the lamp fails to go out or if it does not light at all, the switch is defective and must be replaced. 4. If the switch is working properly, reconnect it and go on with the next test. Vacuum Advance Solenoid 1. Disconnect the vacuum advance solenoid leads. Connect a vacuum gauge to the solenoid hose as in the system test. 2. Place the transmission in Neutral and start the engine. Increase engine speed. The gauge should indicate the presence of a vacuum. 3. Connect the hot lead to a 12 volt power source. Ground the other lead. Increase the engine speed again. The solenoid should energize, resulting in a vacuum reading of zero. 4. Replace the vacuum advance solenoid if it is faulty. If it is not, reconnect the wiring and go on with the next appropriate test. Ambient Temperature Override Switch 1. Disconnect the ambient temperature switch leads. 2. Replace the switch in the circuit with a jumper wire. 3. Repeat the system test. If the vacuum gauge now reads zero or below the specified speed, i.e., the solenoid energized, the temperature switch is defective. 4. If the switch proves not to be defective when tested in Step 3, reconnect it after removing the jumper lead. 5. Cool the switch, using either ice, cold water, or an aerosol spray, to below 63°F. Repeat the system test. If there is no vacuum below the specified speed, the switch is stuck closed and must be replaced. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Vacuum Throttle Modulating System (VTM) OPERATION Print See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Common vacuum throttle modulating system components and their locations This system is designed to reduce the level of hydrocarbon emission during rapid throttle closure at high speed. It is used on some 49 states models, and all models with a V8 engine. The system consists of a deceleration valve located at the right front of the intake manifold, and a throttle modulating diaphragm located at the carburetor base. The valve and the diaphragm are connected by a vacuum hose and the valve is connected to direct manifold vacuum. During deceleration, manifold vacuum acts to delay, slightly, the closing of the throttle plate. TESTING Timing, idle speed and air fuel mixture should be correct before beginning this test. 1. Connect a vacuum gauge to the distributor vacuum advance line. 2. If the carburetor has a dashpot, tape its plunger down so that it cannot touch the throttle lever at idle. 3. Speed the engine up to about 2000 rpm and retain this speed for about ten seconds. 4. Release the throttle, allowing the engine to return to normal idle. 5. The vacuum reading should rise to about 20 in.Hg and stay there for one second. It should take about three seconds for the reading to return to normal, the valve should be adjusted. To check for a leaking valve diaphragm: 6. Remove the vacuum gauge and connect it to the manifold vacuum line with a T-connector. 7. Clamp shut the valve-to-distributor vacuum line and, with the engine at normal idle speed, check the vacuum reading. 8. Clamp the line shut between the deceleration valve and the T-connection. Check the vacuum gauge reading again. 9. If the second reading is higher than the first, the valve diaphragm is leaking and the valve should be replaced. ADJUSTMENT - Deceleration Valve If the deceleration valve test indicted a need for adjustment, proceed as follows: 1. Remove the cover to gain access to the adjusting screw. 2. If an increase in valve opening time is desired, turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise. 3. If a decrease in time is desired, turn the adjusting screw clockwise. 1 Each complete turn of the adjusting screw equals /2in. Hg. After finishing the adjustments, retest the valve. If the valve cannot be adjusted, it is defective and must be replaced. Throttle Modulating Diaphragm 1. Run the engine to normal operating temperature and set the idle speed to specification. Shut off the engine. 2. Position the throttle lever against the curb idle adjusting screw. 3. Measure the clearance between the throttle modulating diaphragm plunger and the throttle lever. A clearance of 4. Adjust the clearance, if necessary, by loosening the jam nut and turning the diaphragm assembly. 1 / 16 in. (1.5875mm) should exist. Back to Top Fuel System AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Autolite/Motorcraft 2100 and 2150 Carburetors DESCRIPTION Print See Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the Motorcraft 2100 carburetor components Fig. Fig. 2: Component list for the Motorcraft 2100 carburetor Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of the Motorcraft 2150 carburetor components Fig. Fig. 4: Component list for the Motorcraft 2150 carburetor The Model 2100 and 2150 2-barrel carburetors have an air horn assembly that covers the main body and houses the choke plate and the internal fuel bowl vents. The throttle plate, accelerator pump assembly, power valve assembly, and fuel bowl are contained in the main body. The automatic choke is also attached to the main body. Each bore contains a main and booster venturi, a main fuel discharge, an accelerating pump discharge, an idle fuel discharge, and a throttle plate. They are used on V8 engines. ADJUSTMENT - Float Level DRY The dry float level measurement is a preliminary check and must be followed by a wet float level measurement with the carburetor mounted on the engine. 1. With the air horn removed and the fuel inlet needle seated lightly, gently raise the float and measure the distance between the main body gasket surface (gasket removed) and the top of the float. 2. If necessary, bend the float tab to obtain the correct level. Wet See Figure 5 Fig. Fig. 5: Adjusting the float level (wet) on the Motorcraft 2150 carburetor 1. Remove the screws that hold the air horn to the main body and break the seal between the air horn and main body. Leave the air horn and gasket loosely in place on top of the main body. 2. Start the engine and allow it to idle for at least 3 minutes. 3. After the engine has idled long enough to stabilize the fuel level, remove the air horn assembly. 4. With the engine idling, use a T-scale to measure the distance surface to the surface of the fuel. The scale must be held at least 1 / 4 in. (6mm) away from any vertical surface to ensure proper measurement. 5. If any adjustment is required, stop the engine to avoid a fire from fuel spraying on the engine. 6. Bend the float tab upward to raise the level and downward to lower the level. WARNING Be sure to hold the fuel inlet needle off its seat when bending the float tab so as not to damage the Viton tip. 7. Each time the float level is changed, the air horn must be temporarily positioned and the engine started to stabilize the fuel level before again checking it. Initial Choke Valve Clearance See Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9 Fig. Fig. 6: Disconnect the choke shield bolts ... Fig. Fig. 7: ... then remove the shield from the choke assembly Fig. Fig. 8: Loosen the choke cover screws ... Fig. Fig. 9: ... then rotate the cover a 1/4 of a turn counterclockwise 1. Remove the choke shield. 2. Loosen the choke cover screws. Rotate the cover 1 / 4 turn counterclockwise. 3. Disconnect the choke heat inlet tube. Align the fast idle speed adjusting screw with the indexed (second) step of the fast idle cam. 4. Start the engine without moving the accelerator linkage. 5. Turn the fast idle cam lever adjusting screw out 3 full turns. Measure the clearance between the lower edge of the choke valve and the air horn wall. 6. Adjust by grasping the modulator arm with a pair of pliers and twisting with a second pair of pliers. Twist to the front to increase the clearance and toward the rear to decrease the clearance. WARNING Be very careful not to damage the nylon piston rod of the modulator assembly. 7. Stop the engine and connect the heat tube. Turn the fast idle cam lever in 3 full turns. 8. Don't reset the choke cover until the fast idle cam linkage adjustment is done. Fast Idle Cam See Figure 10 Fig. Fig. 10: Motorcraft 2100 carburetor fast idle cam index setting 1. Push down on the fast idle cam lever until the fast idle screw is in contact with the second step of the fast idle cam and against the shoulder of the high step. 2. The specified clearance should be present between the lower edge of the choke valve and the air horn wall. 3. The adjustment is made by turning the fast idle cam lever screw. 4. The choke cover may now be adjusted. Choke Unloader (Dechoke) See Figures 11 and 12 Fig. Fig. 11: Choke unloader adjustment on the Motorcraft 2150 carburetor Fig. Fig. 12: Check the choke unloader/fast idle cam clearance hereMotorcraft 2150 carburetor 1. With the throttle held completely open, move the choke valve to the closed position. 2. Measure the distance between the lower edge of the choke valve and the air horn wall. 3. Adjust by bending the tang on the fast idle speed lever which is located on the throttle shaft. Final unloader adjustment must be performed on the car and the throttle should be opened by using the accelerator pedal of the car. This is to be sure that full throttle operation is achieved. Accelerator Pump See Figures 13 and 14 Fig. Fig. 13: Motorcraft 2100 and 2150 carburetor accelerator pump adjustment points Fig. Fig. 14: Location of the fast idle screw-Motorcraft 2100 carburetor The accelerator pump operating rod must be positioned in the proper holes of the accelerator pump lever and the throttle overtravel lever to assure contact pump travel. If adjusting is required, additional holes are provided in the throttle overtravel lever. Fast Idle Adjust the fast idle setting with the engine at operating temperature. The fast idle screw should be resting against the second step of the fast idle cam. Adjust by turning the fast idle screw. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Autolite/Motorcraft 4300 and 4350 4-BBL Carburetors DESCRIPTION Print See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the Motorcraft 4350 carburetor components The model 4300 and 4350 4-barrel carburetors are composed of three main assemblies: the air horn, the main body, and the throttle body. The air horn assembly serves as the fuel bowl cover as well as the housing for the choke valve and shaft. It contains the accelerator pump linkage, fuel inlet seat, float and lever, booster venturi, and internal fuel bowl vents. The main body houses the fuel metering passages, accelerator pump mechanism, and the power valve. The throttle body contains the primary and secondary throttle valve and shafts, the curb idle adjusting screw, the fast idle adjusting screw, the idle mixture adjusting screws, and the automatic choke assembly. It is used on V8 engines. ADJUSTMENTS - Float 4300 MODEL See Figures 2 and 3 Fig. Fig. 2: Adjusting the float level on the Motorcraft 4300 and 4350 carburetors Fig. Fig. 3: Fabricate float gauge bending tools by following the illustrationMotorcraft 4300 and 4350 carburetors 1. Adjustments to the fuel level are best made with the carburetor removed from the engine and the carburetor cleaned upon disassembly. 2. Invert the air horn assembly and remove the gasket from the surface. 3. Use a T-scale to measure the distance from the float to the air horn casting. Position the scale horizontally over the flat surface of both floats at the free ends and parallel to the air horn casting. Hold the lower end of the vertical scale in full contact with the smooth surface of the air horn. The end of the vertical scale must not come into contact with any gasket sealing ridges while measuring the float level. 4. The free end of each float should just touch the horizontal scale, if one float is lower than the other; twist the float and lever assembly slightly to correct. 5. Adjust the float level by bending the tab which contact the needle and seat assembly. 4350 MODEL 1. Invert the air horn assembly and remove the gasket. 2. Measure the distance from the floats to the air horn rim using a T-scale. Position the horizontal scale over the flat surface of both floats at the free ends, parallel to the air horn casting. Hold the lower end of the vertical scale in full contact with the smooth area of the casting, midway between the main discharge nozzles. Do not allow the end of the vertical scale to contact any gasket sealing ridge while measuring the float setting. 3. The free end of the floats should just touch the horizontal scale. Float-to-air horn casting distance should be 29 / 64 in. (11.5mm). Bend the vertical tab on the float arm to adjust the distance. Initial Choke Valve Clearance 1. Remove the choke thermostatic spring housing. 2. Bend a wire gauge (0.035 in. [0.89mm] diameter) at a 90° angle about 1.8 in. (45.7mm) from one end. 3. Block the throttle open so that the fast idle screw does not contact the fast idle cam. 4. Insert the bend end of the wire gauge between the lower edge of the piston slot and the upped edge of the righthand slot in the choke housing. 5. Pull the choke piston lever counterclockwise until the gauge is snug in the piston slot. Hold the wire in place by exerting light pressure in a rearward direction on the choke piston lever. Check the distance from the lower edge of the choke valve to the air horn wall. 6. Adjustment is done by loosening the hex head screw (left-hand thread) on the choke valve shaft and rotating the choke shaft. Fast Idle Cam 4300 MODEL 1. Loosen the screws on the choke thermostatic spring cover and rotate the housing 1 / 4 turn counterclockwise. Tighten the screws. 2. Open the throttle and allow the choke valve to close completely. 3. Push down on the fast idle cam counterweight until the fast idle screw is in contact with the second step of the cam and against the high step. 4. Measure the clearance between the lower edge of the choke valve and the air horn wall. 5. Adjust the turning the fast idle cam adjusting screw. 6. Return the housing to its original position. 4350 MODEL 1. Run the engine to normal operating temperature. Connect an accurate tachometer to the engine. 2. Disconnect and plug the EGR and TCS vacuum lines. 3. Position the fast idle screw against the first step of the fast idle screw. Adjust the fast idle screw to give a reading of 1600 rpm. 4. Return the linkage to its normal position, unplug and reconnect the vacuum lines. Choke Unloader (Dechoke) 1. Open the throttle fully and hold it in this position. 2. Rotate the choke valve toward the closed position. 3. Check the clearance between the lower edge of the choke valve and the air horn wall. 4. Adjust by bending the unloader tang on the fast idle speed lever toward the cam to increase the clearance and away to decrease the clearance. Do not bend the unloader tang down from the horizontal. After adjustment, there should be at least 0.070 in. (1.78mm) clearance from the choke housing with the throttle fully open. Accelerator Pump Stroke The accelerator pump should not need adjustment as its stroke is preset in compliance with exhaust emission control standards. If for any reason the stroke must be altered, it may be done by repositioning the link in the desired holes. Fast Idle Speed The fast idle speed is adjusted with the engine at operating temperature and the fast idle screw on the second step of the fast idle cam. Adjust by turning the fast idle screw in or out as required. To adjust the fast idle speed, you must plug the EGR valve vacuum line and disconnect the TCS solenoid wire. Dashpot Some carburetors are equipped with a dashpot to prevent stalling. The dashpot adjustment procedure for these carburetors is as follows: 1. Be sure that the throttle valves are closed tightly and that the diaphragm stem is fully depressed. 2. Measure the clearance between the dashpot stem and the throttle lever with a feeler gauge. For the proper clearance specification, see the chart. 3. If the clearance is not correct, adjust it by loosening the locknut and rotating the dashpot until the proper clearance is obtained. Tighten the locknut. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Carburetors REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print See Figures 1 through 10 Fig. Fig. 1: To remove the carburetor, disconnect the hoses. Some are secured with clamps Fig. Fig. 2: After releasing the clamp, disconnect the hose Fig. Fig. 3: Using a flare nut wrench and a back-up wrench, disengage the fuel line nut ... Fig. Fig. 4: ... then disconnect the fuel line from the carburetor Fig. Fig. 5: Disengage the transmission linkage from the throttle lever assembly ... Fig. Fig. 6: ... then disconnect the cable from the bracket by compressing the square tabs Fig. Fig. 7: Use a pair of pliers to remove the throttle linkage retaining pin ... Fig. Fig. 8: ... then disengage the linkage from the throttle shaft assembly Fig. Fig. 9: Unfasten the carburetor retaining bolts. Use an extension if necessary Fig. Fig. 10: Remove the carburetor from the intake manifold assembly 1. Remove the air cleaner. 2. Disconnect the fuel and vacuum lines. It might be a good idea to tag them to avoid confusion when the time comes to put them back. 3. Disconnect the choke rod. 4. Disconnect the accelerator linkage. 5. Disconnect the automatic transmission linkage. 6. Unbolt and remove the carburetor. 7. Remove the base gasket. To install: 8. Make sure that the carburetor and manifold sealing surfaces are clean. 9. Install a new carburetor base gasket. 10. Install the carburetor and start the fuel and vacuum lines. 11. Bolt down the carburetor evenly. 12. Tighten the fuel and vacuum lines. 13. Connect the accelerator and automatic transmission linkage. If the transmission linkage was disturbed, it will have to be adjusted. The procedure is in Drive Train . 14. Connect the choke rod. 15. Install the air cleaner. Adjust the Idle Speed and Mixture as described in Tune-up and Performance Maintenance . Depending on the vintage, it may not be necessary (or possible) to adjust the idle mixture. OVERHAUL Whenever wear or dirt causes a carburetor to perform poorly, there are two possible solutions to the problem. The simplest is to trade on the old unit for a rebuilt one. The other, cheaper alternative is to buy an overhaul kit and rebuild the original kit. Some of the better overhaul kits contain complete step-by-step instructions along with exploded views and gauges. Other kits, intended for the professional, have only a few general overhaul hints. The second type can be moderately confusing to the novice, especially since a kit may have extra parts so that one kit can cover several variations of the same carburetor. In any event, it is not a good idea to dismantle any carburetor without at least replacing all the gaskets. The carburetor adjustments should all be checked during or after overhaul. Before you go to the parts store for a rebuilding kit, make sure that you know what make and model your carburetor is. Efficient carburetion depends greatly on careful cleaning and inspection during overhaul, since dirt, gum, water, or varnish in or on the carburetor parts are often responsible for poor performance. Overhaul your carburetor in a clean, dust free area. Carefully disassemble the carburetor, referring often to the exploded views. Keep all similar and lookalike parts segregated during disassembly and cleaning to avoid accidental interchange during assembly. Make a note of all jet sizes. When the carburetor is disassembled, wash all parts (except diaphragms, electric choke units, pump plunger, and any other plastic, leather, fire, or rubber parts) in clean carburetor solvent. Do not leave parts in the solvent any longer than is necessary to sufficiently loosen the deposits. Excessive cleaning may remove the special finish from the float bowl and choke valve bodies, leaving these parts unfit for service. Rinse all parts in clean solvent and blow them dry with compressed air or allow them to air dry. Wipe clean all cork, plastic, leather, and fiber parts with a clean, lint-free cloth. Blow out all passages and jets with compressed air and be sure that there are no restrictions or blockages. Never use wire or similar tools to clean jets, fuel passages, or air bleeds. Clean all jets and valves separately to avoid accidental interchange. Check all parts for wear or damage. If wear or damage is found, replace the complete assembly. 1. Check the float hinge pin for wear and the float(s) for dents or distortion. Replace the float if fuel has leaked into it. 2. Check the throttle and choke shaft bores for wear or an out-of-round condition. Damage or wear to the throttle arm, shaft, or shaft bore will require replacement of the throttle body. These parts require a close tolerance of fit; wear may allow air leakage, which could affect starting and idling. Throttle shafts and bushings are not included in overhaul kits. They can be purchased separately. 3. Inspect the idle mixture adjusting needles for burrs or grooves. Any such condition requires replacement of the needle, since you will not be able to obtain a satisfactory idle. 4. Test the accelerator pump check valves. They should pass air one way but not the other. Test for proper seating by blowing and sucking on the valve. Replace the valve as necessary. If the valve is satisfactory, wash the valve again to remove breath moisture. 5. Check the bowl cover for warped surfaces with a straightedge. 6. Closely inspect the valves and seats for wear and damage, replacing as necessary. 7. After the carburetor is assembled, check the choke valve for freedom of operation. Carburetor overhaul kits are recommended for each overhaul. These kits contain all gaskets and new parts to replace those that deteriorate most rapidly. Failure to replace all parts supplied with the kit (especially gaskets) can result in poor performance later. Some carburetor manufacturers supply overhaul kits of three basic types: minor repair; major repair; and gasket kits. Basically, they contain the following: Minor Repair Kits All gaskets Float needle valve Volume control screw All diaphragms Spring for the pump diaphragm Major Repair Kits All jets and gaskets All diaphragms Float needle valve Volume control screw Pump ball valve Main jet carrier Float Complete intermediate rod Intermediate pump lever Complete injector tube Some cover hold-down screws and washers Gasket Kits All gaskets After cleaning and checking all components, reassemble the carburetor, using new parts and referring to the exploded view. When reassembling, make sure that all screws and jets are tight in their seats, but do not overtighten as the tips will be distorted. Tighten all screws gradually, in rotation. Do not tighten needle valves into their seats; uneven jetting will result. Always use new gaskets. BE sure to adjust the float level when reassembling. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Carter BBD 2-BBL Carburetor See Figures 1 and 2 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the Carter BBD carburetor components Fig. Fig. 2: Component list for the Carter BBD carburetor ADJUSTMENT - Float Level See Figure 3 Fig. Fig. 3: Carter BBD carburetor float adjustment points Float Adjustment 1. Remove the carburetor air horn. 2. Gently hold the lip of the float against its needle to raise the float. 3. Measure float level by placing a straightedge across the float bowl. Float level should be maintained at 0.250 in. (6.35mm), plus or minus 0.032 in. (0.81mm). Release the floats. 4. If necessary, adjust by bending the float lips as required. Do not bend float lip while it is resting against the needle as this may deform the synthetic needle tip and cause a false setting. 5. Install the air horn. Fast Idle See Figure 4 Fig. Fig. 4: Adjusting the fast idle cam on the Carter BBD carburetor Perform this adjustment with the carburetor installed on the engine. If the car is equipped with a Transmission Controlled Spark (TCS) system and/or an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system, be sure that both are disconnected before attempting to set fast idle speed. 1. Start engine and allow it to reach normal operating temperature. 2. Connect a tachometer to the engine. 3. Set the fast idle adjusting screw so that it contacts the second step of the fast idle cam and rests against the shoulder of the high step. 4. Rotate the fast idle adjusting screw until a fast idle speed of 1700 rpm is obtained. 5. Remove the tach and return the engine to normal idle speed after the adjustment is completed. Automatic Choke This adjustment may be made with the carburetor either on or off the engine. 1. Loosen the choke cover retaining screws. 2. Rotate the choke cover in the direction of its arrow to the specified setting. Refer to the carburetor specification charts. 3. Tighten the retaining screws. 4. If the car stumbles or stalls at the specified choke setting during engine warm-up, adjust the setting to (richer or leaner) until the car runs properly. Never set the choke more than two notches in either direction of the recommended setting. Choke Unloader 1. Hold the throttle in the wide open position and apply pressure on the choke plate toward the closed position. 2. Measure the distance between the lower edge of the choke plate and the air horn wall (see the `Carburetor Specifications' chart). 3. If necessary, adjust by bending the unloader tang where it contacts the fast idle cam. Bend toward the cam to increase clearance, and away from the cam to decrease clearance. Do not bend the unloader tang down from the horizontal plane. After adjusting, make sure that the unloader tang maintains at least a 0.070 in. (1.78mm) clearance from the flange of the main body at wide open throttle position. 4. Operate the throttle and make sure that the unloader does not bind against the carburetor or linkage. Also make sure the wide open throttle can be reached by fully depressing the gas pedal. If not, remove excess padding from beneath the floor mat or reposition the throttle cable bracket. Initial Choke Valve 1. Remove the choke cover. 2. Using a vacuum source which holds a minimum of 19 in. Hg, pull the diaphragm in against its stop. 3. Open the throttle valve slightly so that the fast idle screw locates on the high step of the cam. 4. Hold the choke bimetallic coil tang in the closed position and measure the clearance between the choke plate and the air horn wall. The distance should be 0.128 in. (3.25mm), plus or minus 0.010 in. (0.254mm). 5. Adjust as necessary by bending the `S' shaped section of the diaphragm connector link. Vacuum Step-Up Piston Gap See Figure 5 Fig. Fig. 5: Carter BBD carburetor vacuum piston components 1. Remove the step-up piston cover plate and gasket from the carburetor air horn. 2. Adjust the gap in the step-up piston to 0.040 in. (1.016mm), plus or minus 0.015 in. (0.38mm) using the allen head screw on top of the piston. Turning the screw clockwise richens the fuel mixture and turning counterclockwise leans it out. 3. Back off the curb idle adjustment until the throttle valves are fully closed, then rotate the idle screw inward one complete turn. Make a note of the number of turns so that the idle screw can be returned to its original position. 4. While keeping moderate pressure on the rod lifter tab, fully depress the step-up piston and tighten the rod lifter lockscrew. 5. Release the piston and rod lifter, and return the curb idle screw to its original position. 6. Install the step-up piston cover plate and gasket. Accelerator Pump See Figure 6 Fig. Fig. 6: Carter BBD carburetor accelerator pump adjustment 1. Back off the curb idle screw until the throttle valves (plates) are completely closed. Then, open the choke valve (plate) so that the fast idle cam permits the throttle valves to seat in their bores. Make sure that the accelerator pump `S' link is located in the outer hole of the pump arm. 2. Turn the curb idle screw clockwise until it just contacts its stop, and then continue to rotate two complete turns. 3. Measure the distance between the surface of the air horn and the top of the accelerator pump shaft. This distance should be 0.500 in. (12.7mm). 4. Adjust the pump travel as necessary, by loosening the pump arm adjusting lockscrew and rotating the sleeve until the proper measurement is obtained. Then, tighten the lockscrew. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Carter YF Carburetor DESCRIPTION Print See Figures 1, 2 and 3 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the Carter YF carburetor with the altitude compensator Fig. Fig. 2: Exploded view of the Carter YF carburetor without the altitude compensator Fig. Fig. 3: Component list for the Carter YF carburetor without the altitude compensator The YF carburetor is a single barrel downdraft carburetor with a diaphragm type accelerator pump and diaphragm operated metering rods. ADJUSTMENTS - Float Level 1. Invert the air horn assembly and check the clearance from the top of the float to the surface of the air horn with a T-scale. The air horn should be held at eye level when gauging and the float arm should be resting on the needle pin. 2. Do not exert pressure on the needle valve when measuring or adjusting the float. Bend the float arm as necessary to adjust the float level. Float Drop 1. Hold the air horn up with the float hanging free. 2. Measure the distance between the top of the float at the extreme out end and the air horn under surface. 3. Adjust by bending the tab at the rear of the float lever. Metering Rod 1. Back out the idle speed adjusting screw until the throttle plate is seated fully in its bore. 2. Press down on the upper end of the diaphragm shaft until the diaphragm bottoms in the vacuum chamber. 3. The metering rod should contact the bottom of the metering rod well and lifter link at the outer end nearest the springs and at the supporting link. The eyelet of the rod should slide freely on the pin of the metering rod arm. 4. On models not equipped with an adjusting screw, adjust by bending the metering rod pin tab. 5. On models with an adjusting screw, turn the screw until the metering rod just bottoms in the body casting. For final adjustment, turn the screw one additional turn clockwise. Fast Idle Cam 1. Open the throttle side enough to allow full closing of the choke valve. Be sure that the fast idle screw is not contacting the fast idle cam. 2. Close the throttle valve and the fast idle cam should revolve to the fast idle position. 3. If adjustment is necessary, bend the choke rod at its upper angle. 4. Position the fast idle screw on the second step of the fast idle cam and against the shoulder of the high step. Measure the specified clearance between the lower edge of the choke plate and the air horn wall. Bent the choke rod to adjust. 5. Fast idle speed may be checked with the engine warmed up. Speed adjustment is made by bending the choke rod at the lower angle. The speed is given with the adjusting screw on the second step and against the highest step. Adjustment is made with the adjusting screw. EGR hoses must be blocked off and TCS solenoid vacuum valve wires must be disconnected to do this. Choke Unloader With the throttle valve held wide open and the choke valve held in the closed position, bend the unloader lug on the choke trip lever to obtain the specified clearance between the lower edge of the choke valve and the air horn wall. Automatic Choke 1. Loosen the choke cover retaining screws. 2. Turn the choke over so that the index mark on the cover lines up with the specified mark on the choke housing. Never set it more than two graduations in either direction of the specified setting. Electrically Assisted Choke Starting with the 1976 models, some single barrel Carter YF carburetors use an electrically assisted choke to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions during warm-up. Once underhood temperatures reach 95°F (15°F), a bimetallic switch located in the choke cap closes, allowing a ceramic heating element to draw power from a special tap on the alternator. This causes the choke valve to open faster than normal, thus reducing CO emission during engine warm-up. After the engine is shut off, the bimetallic switch remains closed until underhood temperature drops below 65°F. Thus, if the engine is turned off for only a short time or if the ambient temperature is above 65°F, the choke will function for only a limited period of time. TESTING 1. Detach the electrical lead from the choke cap. 2. Use a jumper lead to connect the terminal on the choke cap and the wire terminal, so that the electrical circuit is still completed. 3. Start the engine. 4. Hook up a test light between the connector on the choke lead and ground. 5. The test light should glow. If it does not, current is not being supplied to the electrically assisted choke. 6. Connect the test light between the terminal on the alternator and the terminal on the choke cap. If the light now glows, replace the lead, since it is not passing current to the choke assist. CAUTION Do not ground terminal on the alternator while performing Step 6. 7. If the light still does not glow, the fault lies somewhere in the electrical system. Check the system out. If the electrically assisted choke receives power, but still does not appear to be functioning properly, reconnect the choke lead and proceed with the rest of the test. 8. Tape the bulb end of a thermometer to the metallic portion of the choke housing. 9. If the electrically assisted choke operates below 55°F (13°C), it is defective and must be replaced. 10. Allow the engine to warm-up to between 80°F and 110°F (27-43°C); at these temperatures the choke should operate for about 1 11. If it does not operate for this length of time, check the bimetallic spring to see if it is connected to the tang on the choke lever. 12. If the spring is connected and the choke is not operating properly, replace the cap assembly. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 1. Unfasten the electrical lead from the choke cover. 2. Remove the choke cover retaining screws and clamp. 1 / 2 minutes. 3. Remove the choke cover and gasket from the carburetor. 4. Installation is performed in the reverse order of removal. Adjust the choke cover. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Carter YFA Carburetor See Figure 1 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the Carter YFA carburetor components This carburetor is used on the 4-150. ADJUSTMENT - Float and Fuel Level See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Measuring the float clearance on the Carter YFA carburetor 1. Remove the top of the carburetor and the gasket. 2. Invert the carburetor top and check the clearance from the top of the float to the bottom edge of the air horn with a float level gauge. Hold the carburetor top at eye level when making the check. The float arm should be resting on the inlet needle pin. To adjust, bend the float arm. Do not bend the tab at the end of the arm! See the Carburetor Specifications chart for the correct clearance. Fast Idle Linkage See Figure 3 Fig. Fig. 3: Location of the fast idle adjustment screw (1) on the Carter YFA carburetor This adjustment is performed with the air cleaner removed. 1. Run the engine to normal operating temperature. Connect a tachometer according to the maker's instructions. 2. Disconnect and plug the EGR valve vacuum hose. 3. Position the fast idle adjustment screw on the second stop of the fast idle cam with the transmission in neutral. 4. Adjust the fast idle speed to 2300 rpm for auto. trans. and 2000 rpm for man. trans. 5. Idle the engine and reconnect the EGR hose. Initial Choke Valve Clearance 1. Position the fast idle screw on the top step of the fast idle cam. 2. Using a vacuum pump, seat the choke vacuum break. 3. Apply light closing pressure in the choke plate to position the plate as far closed as possible without forcing it. 4. Measure the distance between the air horn wall and the choke plate. If it is not that specified in the Carburetor Specifications Chart, bend the choke vacuum break link until it is. Choke Setting Once the rivets and choke cover are removed, a choke cover retainer kit is necessary for assembly. 1. Remove the rivets, retainers, choke cover and coil following the instructions found in the cover retainer kit. 2. Position the fast idle adjustment screw on the highest stop of the fast idle cam. 3. Push on the intermediate choke lever and close the choke plate. 4. Insert the proper plug gauge, 0.050-0.080 in. (1.27-2.032mm) for manual trans. and 0.85 in. (21.59mm) for automatic trans., in the hole adjacent to the coil lever. The edge of the lever should barely contact the plug gauge. 5. Bend the intermediate choke rod to adjust. Unloader 1. Obtain a Carburetor Choke Angle Gauge tool #J-26701-A or its equivalent. Rotate the scale on the gauge until the 0 mark is opposite the pointer. 2. Close the choke plate completely and set the magnet squarely on top of it. 3. Rotate the bubble until it is centered. 4. Rotate the degree scale until the 32° mark is opposite the pointer. On carburetors with choke cover sticker number 70172 the setting is 19°. 5. Hold the primary throttle valve wide open. 6. Bend the throttle lever tang until the bubble is centered. Metering Rod See Figure 4 Fig. Fig. 4: Adjusting the metering rod on the Carter YFA carburetor 1. Remove the air horn and gasket. 2. Make sure that the idle speed adjustment screw allows the throttle plate to close tightly in the bore. 3. Press down on the top of the pump diaphragm shaft until it bottoms. 4. In this position, adjust the metering rod by turning the adjusting screw counterclockwise, until the metering rod lightly bottoms in the main metering jet. 5. Turn the adjusting screw 1 full turn more. 6. Install the air horn and gasket, and adjust the curb idle speed. See Figures 5 through 12 Fig. Fig. 5: Carburetor Specification Charts Fig. Fig. 6: Carier YF Fig. Fig. 7: Carter YFA Fig. Fig. 8: Rochester 2SE/E2SE Fig. Fig. 9: Autolite/Motorcraft 2100 Fig. Fig. 10: Motorcraft 2100/2150 Fig. Fig. 11: Autolite 4350 Fig. Fig. 12: Troubleshooting Basic Fuel Systems Problems Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Fuel Pump REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print See Figures 1 through 7 Fig. Fig. 1: Common fuel pump assembly used on all models except the 4-151 engines Fig. Fig. 2: Exploded view of the fuel pump components4-151 engine Fig. Fig. 3: Use a pair of pliers to disengage the spring type fuel return line clamp ... Fig. Fig. 4: ... then separate the hose from the fuel pump Fig. Fig. 5: Use a flare nut wrench to loosen the inlet line nut ... Fig. Fig. 6: ... then gently pull the line from the fuel pump being careful not to bend or kink it Fig. Fig. 7: Use an extension to reach the fuel pump retaining bolts 1. Disconnect the inlet and outlet fuel lines, and any vacuum lines. 2. Remove the two fuel pump body attaching nuts and lockwashers. 3. Pull the pump and gasket, or O-ring, free of the engine. Make sure that the mating surfaces of the fuel pump and the engine are clean. To install: 4. Cement a new gasket to the mounting flange of the fuel pump. 5. Position the fuel pump on the engine block so that the lever of the fuel pump rests on the fuel pump cam of the camshaft. 6. Secure the fuel pump to the block with the two cap screws and lock washers. 7. Connect the intake and outlet fuel lines to the fuel pump, and any vacuum lines. WARNING When installing the 4-121 engine fuel pump, be sure that the pushrod is positioned properly against the actuating lever or the pump may be damaged when the screws are tightened. TESTING - Volume Check See Figure 8 Fig. Fig. 8: Connect a fuel pressure gauge as shown to check pump volume and pressure Disconnect the fuel line from the carburetor. Place the open end in a suitable container. Start the engine and operate it at normal idle speed. The pump should deliver at least one pint in 30 seconds. Pressure Check 1. Disconnect the fuel line at the carburetor. 2. Disconnect the fuel return line from the fuel filter if so equipped, and plug the nipple on the filter. 3. Install a T-fitting on the open end of the fuel line and refit the line to the carburetor. 4. Plug a pressure gauge into the remaining opening of the T-fitting. 5. The hose leading to the pressure gauge should not be any longer than 6 in. (152.5mm). 6. Start the engine and let it run at idle speed. 7. Bleed any air out of the hose between the gauge and the T-fitting. 8. On pumps with a fuel return line, the line must be plugged. 9. Start the engine. Fuel pressures are as follows: 4-121 Engine: 4.00-6.00psi @ idle 4-150 Engine: 4.00-5.00psi @ idle 4-151 Engine: 6.50-8.00psi @ idle6-232 Engine: 3.00-5.00psi @ idle 6-258 Engine: 3.00-5.00psi @ idle 8-304 Engine: 4.00-6.00psi @ idle 8-360 Engine: 4.00-6.00psi @ idle 8-401 Engine: 4.00-6.00psi @ idle Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Holley 5210-C Carburetor See Figure 1 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the Holley 5210-C carburetor components This carburetor is used on the 4-121 engine. ADJUSTMENTS - Float Level 1. With the carburetor air horn inverted, and the float tang resting lightly on the inlet needle, insert the specified gauge between the air horn and the float. 2. Bend the float tang is an adjustment is needed. Fast Idle Cam 1. Place the fast idle screw on the second step of the fast idle cam and against the shoulder of the high step. 2. Place the specified drill or gauge on the down side of the choke plate. 3. To adjust, bend the choke lever tang. Choke Plate Pulldown (Vacuum Break) 1977-79 MODELS 1. Remove the three hex headed screws and ring which retain the choke cover. CAUTION Do not remove the choke water housing screw if adjusting on the car. Pull the choke assembly back out of the way. 2. Push the diaphragm shaft against the stop. Push the coil lever clockwise. 3. Insert the specified size gauge on the down side of the primary choke plate. 4. Take the slack out of the linkage and turn the adjusting screw with a 5 / 32 in. Allen wrench. 1980 MODELS 1. Attach a hand vacuum pump to the vacuum break diaphragm; apply vacuum and seat the diaphragm. 2. Push the fast idle cam lever down to close the choke plate. 3. Take any slack out of the linkage in the open choke position. 4. Insert the specified gauge between the lower edge of the choke plate and the air horn wall. 5. If the clearance is incorrect, turn the vacuum break adjusting screw, located in the break housing, to adjust. Secondary Vacuum Break 1977-78 MODELS 1. Remove the three screws and the choke coil assembly. 2. Place the cam follower on the highest step of the fast idle cam. 3. Seat the diaphragm by applying an outside source of vacuum. 4. Push the inside choke coil lever counterclockwise for 1977; clockwise for 1978, to close the choke valve. 5. Place a gauge of the size specified in the chart between the lower edge of the choke valve and the air horn wall. 6. Bend the vacuum break rod to adjust. 7. Replace and adjust the choke. Choke Unloader 1. Position the throttle lever at the wide open position. 2. Insert a gauge of the size specified in the chart between the lower edge of the choke valve and the air horn wall. 3. Bend the unloader tang for adjustment. Secondary Throttle Stop Screw 1. Back off the screw until it doesn't touch the throttle lever. 2. Turn the screw in until it touches the secondary throttle lever. Turn it in 1 / 4 turn more. Fast Idle Speed 1. The engine must be normal operating temperature with the air cleaner off. 2. With the engine running, position the fast idle screw on the second step against the shoulder of the high step. Plug the EGR Port on the carburetor. 3. Adjust the speed by turning the fast idle screw. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Rochester E2SE Carburetor See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the Rochester E2SE/2SE carburetor components Print This carburetor is used on the 4-151 engine. ADJUSTMENTS - Float See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Adjusting the float level on the Rochester 2SE and E2SE carburetors 1. Remove the air horn. 2. Hold the float retainer and push down lightly on the float. 3. Using a T-scale, at a point 3 / 16 in. (4.76mm) from the end of the float, measure the distance from the top surface of the float bowl to the top of the float. The distance should be 0.208 in. (5.28mm) with manual trans., 0.256 in. (6.5mm) with automatic trans., and 0.208 in. (5.28mm) for all Calif. E2SE models. 4. Bend the float arm as necessary to adjust. Fast Idle See Figures 3 and 4 Fig. Fig. 3: Adjustment point locationsRochester 2SE carburetor Fig. Fig. 4: Fast idle cam adjustment on the Rochester 2SE/E2SE carburetors 1. Make sure the choke coil adjustment is correct and that the fast idle speed is correct. 2. Obtain a Choke Angle Gauge, tool #J-26701-1 or its equivalent. Rotate the degree scale to the 0° mark opposite the pointer. 3. With the choke valve completely closed, place the magnet on the tool squarely on the choke plate. Rotate the bubble unit until it is centered. 4. Rotate the degree scale until the 25° mark is opposite the pointer. On carburetors with choke cover sticker number 70172, the angle is 18°. 5. Place the fast idle screw on the second step of the cam. 6. Close the choke plate by pushing on the intermediate choke lever. 7. Push the vacuum brake lever toward the open choke position until the lever is against the rear tang on the choke lever. 8. Adjust by bending the fast idle cam rod until the bubble is centered. Choke Setting See Figure 5 Fig. Fig. 5: Adjusting the choke lever on the Rochester 2SE/E2SE carburetors Once the rivets and choke cover are removed, a choke cover retainer kit is necessary for assembly. 1. Remove the rivets, retainers, choke cover and coil following the instructions found in the cover retainer kit. 2. Position the fast idle adjustment screw on the highest step of the fast idle cam. 3. Push on the intermediate choke lever and close the choke plate. 4. Insert the proper plug gauge, 0.050-0.080 in. (1.27-2.03mm) for manual trans. and 0.85 in. (21.6mm) for automatic trans., in the hole adjacent to the coil lever. The edge of the lever should barely contact the plug gauge. 5. Bend the intermediate choke rod to adjust. Choke Unloader See Figure 6 Fig. Fig. 6: Choke unloader adjustment on the Rochester 2SE/E2SE carburetors 1. Obtain a Carburetor Choke Angle Gauge, tool #J-26701-1 or its equivalent. Rotate the scale on the gauge until the 0 mark is opposite the pointer. 2. Close the choke plate completely and set the magnet squarely on top of it. 3. Rotate the bubble until it is centered. 4. Rotate the degree scale until the 32° mark is opposite the pointer. On carburetors with choke cover sticker number 70172 the setting is 19°. 5. Hold the primary throttle valve wide open. 6. Bend the throttle lever tang until the bubble is centered. Back to Top Chassis Electrical AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Blower Motor See Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 Fig. Fig. 1: When removing the blower motor assembly, first disengage the electrical connection Print Fig. Fig. 2: Unfasten motor case-to-firewall retainers ... Fig. Fig. 3: ... then remove the assembly from the vehicle Fig. Fig. 4: Troubleshooting the Heater REMOVAL & INSTALLATION - Matador 1. Disconnect the motor wires, inside the engine compartment. 2. Remove the attaching screws from the motor mounting plate. 3. Remove the motor and fan assembly. 4. Installation is the reverse of removal. Gremlin, Hornet, Concord, Spirit and Eagle 1. Drain about two quarts of coolant from the radiator. CAUTION When draining engine coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted to ethylene glycol antifreeze and could drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or is several years old. 2. Disconnect the heater hoses from the heater core tubes the plug the core tubes. 3. Disconnect the blower wires. 4. Remove the cover retaining nut and remove the motor and fan assembly. 5. To install, reverse the removal procedure. Pacer MODELS WITHOUT AIR CONDITIONING 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. 2. Remove the right side windshield finish molding. 3. Remove the instrument panel crash pad. 4. Remove the right scuff plate and cowl trim panel. 5. Remove the lower instrument panel-to-right A-pillar attaching screws. 6. Pull the instrument panel to the rear and replace the lower attaching screw in the right A-pillar. Allow the instrument panel to rest on the screw. 7. Remove the heater core housing attaching nuts and screws. 8. Remove the vacuum hoses from the heater core housing clip and set the lines aside. 9. Disconnect the blend-air door cable from the heater core housing. 10. Pull the heater core housing forward and set atop the upper control arm. 11. Remove the blower motor ground wire at the relay. 12. Disconnect the wires at the blower motor resistor. 13. Remove the blower motor housing brace. 14. Loosen the heater housing-to-dash panel attaching nuts. 15. Pull the blower housing to the rear and downward. 16. Disconnect the vacuum hoses from the vacuum motors. 17. Remove the blower housing. 18. Remove the blower housing cover. 19. Disconnect the white blower wire inside the housing. 20. Remove the blower motor mounting plate-to-housing screws and remove the blower motor assembly. 21. Remove the blower fan from the motor shaft and remove the mounting plate from the motor housing. 22. Install the blower motor in the reverse order of removal. MODELS WITH AIR CONDITIONING 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. 2. Remove the right scuff plate and cowl trim panel. 3. Remove the radio overlay cover. 4. Remove the instrument panel crash pad. 5. Remove the instrument panel-to-right A-pillar attaching screws. 6. Remove the two upper instrument panel-to-lower instrument panel attaching screws above the glove box. 7. Disconnect the blend-air door cable from the heater core housing. 8. Remove the housing brace-to-floorpan screw. 9. Disconnect the wire at the blower motor resistor. 10. Disconnect the vacuum hoses from the vacuum motors. 11. Remove the heater core housing attaching nuts and screw. 12. Remove the vacuum hoses from the housing clip and set the lines aside. 13. Pull the heater core housing forward and set it atop the upper control arm. 14. Remove the floor outlet duct. 15. Disconnect the wires from the blower motor relay. 16. Remove the blower housing attaching screw located in the engine compartment on the dash panel. 17. Loosen the evaporator housing-to-dash panel attaching screw. 18. Remove the blower housing-to-dash panel attaching screw. 19. Pull the blower housing to the rear and downward. 20. Pull the right side of the instrument panel to the rear and remove the blower housing from under the panel. 21. Remove the floor door vacuum motor attaching screws and motor to gain access to the blower housing cover attaching screws. 22. Remove the blower housing cover attaching screws and remove the cover. 23. Remove the blower motor mounting plate and remove the blower motor assembly. 24. Remove the blower fan from the motor shaft and the mounting plate from the body of the motor. 25. Install the motor in reverse order of removal. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Control Head REMOVAL & INSTALLATION - Matador Print 1975-77 MODELS 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Remove the instrument cluster bezel. 3. Remove the clock or clock opening cover. 4. If equipped, remove the fuel economy gauge. 5. Remove the control head attaching screws. 6. Pull the control head out slightly and disconnect the cables, vacuum hoses and wires. It's a good idea to label the hoses and wires so that you'll remember where they go. 7. Installation is the reverse of removal. Adjust the cables as necessary. 1978 MODELS 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Remove the right side remote mirror control. 3. Remove the instrument cluster bezel. 4. Remove the clock or clock opening cover. 5. If equipped, remove the fuel economy gauge. 6. Remove the control head attaching screws. 7. Pull the control head out slightly and disconnect the cables, vacuum hoses and wires. It's a good idea to label the hoses and wires so that you'll remember where they go. 8. Installation is the reverse of removal. Adjust the cables as necessary. The fan switch attaching screw is accessible on the back of the panel after panel removal. 1975-77 Hornet, 1975-78 Gremlin and 1978 Gremlin and AMX Models WITHOUT AIR CONDITIONING 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Remove the instrument panel center housing. 3. Remove the radio. 4. Remove the control head attaching screws. 5. Pull the control head out slightly and disconnect the cables, vacuum hoses and wires. It's a good idea to label the hoses and wires so that you'll remember where they go. 6. Installation is the reverse of removal. Adjust the cables as necessary. WITH AIR CONDITIONING See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Control head and vacuum line components on all 1975-78 models except Pacer with A/C 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Remove the instrument panel center housing. 3. Remove the AC thermostat control knob and attaching nut. 4. Remove the control head attaching screws. 5. Remove the center upper discharge duct. 6. Remove the radio. 7. Pull the control head out slightly and disconnect the cables, vacuum hoses and wires. It's a good idea to label the hoses and wires so that you'll remember where they go. 8. Installation is the reverse of removal. Adjust the cables as necessary. 1979-80 AMX, 1979-83 Spirit and Concord and 1980-88 Eagle WITHOUT AIR CONDITIONING See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Control head and related components on all except Pacer models without A/C 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Remove the instrument panel center housing. 3. Remove the control head attaching screws. 4. Pull the control head out slightly and disconnect the cables, vacuum hoses and wires. It's a good idea to label the hoses and wires so that you'll remember where they go. 5. Installation is the reverse of removal. Adjust the cables as necessary. On 1980-88 models, the control cables must be attached with the colored tape in the center of the clips that are attached to the control head. WITH AIR CONDITIONING See Figure 3 Fig. Fig. 3: Control head and vacuum line components on all 1979-88 models with A/C except Pacer 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Remove the instrument panel center housing. 3. Remove the control head attaching screws. 4. Remove the center upper discharge duct. 5. Remove the radio. 6. Pull the control head out slightly and disconnect the cables, vacuum hoses and wires. It's a good idea to label the hoses and wires so that you'll remember where they go. The fan switch attaching screw is accessible on the back of the panel after panel removal. 7. Installation is the reverse of removal. Adjust the cables as necessary. Pacer 1977-7 MODELS8 See Figures 4 and 5 Fig. Fig. 4: Exploded view of the control head and its related components on Pacer models with A/C through 1979 Fig. Fig. 5: Control head and its related components on Pacer models without A/C through 1979 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Remove the instrument panel center housing. 3. Remove the radio. 4. Remove the control head attaching screws. 5. Pull the control head out slightly and disconnect the cables, vacuum hoses and wires. It's a good idea to label the hoses and wires so that you'll remember where they go. 6. Installation is the reverse of removal. Adjust the cables as necessary. 1979-80 MODELS See Figure 6 Fig. Fig. 6: Exploded view of the control head components on 1980 Pacer models with A/C 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. 2. Remove the radio. 3. Remove the control panel attaching screws. 4. Pull the control panel out and disconnect the vacuum hoses, wires and cables. Tag them for proper installation. 5. Installation is the reverse of removal. Adjust the cables as necessary. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING The following procedures for servicing the components of the heater apply to those cars which have air conditioning as well as those without it. Print Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Heater Core REMOVAL & INSTALLATION - Matador Print See Figures 1 and 2 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the heater assembly on Matador models equipped with air conditioning Fig. Fig. 2: Exploded view of the Matador heater assembly on models without air conditioning 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. 2. Drain about 2 quarts of coolant from the cooling system. CAUTION When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by the ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old. 3. Disconnect the heater hoses from the heater core in the engine compartment and plug the core tubes. 4. On air conditioned cars, disconnect the blend-air damper cable at the heater core housing and remove the fuse panel. On non-A/C cars, disconnect the blend-air damper door and fresh air door cables. 5. Remove the lower instrument finish panel and remove the glove box door and liner. 6. Remove the right windshield pillar and corner finish moldings for access to the upper right heater core housing mounting screws. 7. On air conditioned cars, remove the vacuum motor hoses. 8. Remove the remaining heater core housing attaching screws. 9. On air conditioned cars, remove the capscrew retaining the instrument panel to the right body pillar. Pull the right side of the instrument panel slightly rearward. 10. Remove the heater core housing and heater core. Remove the heater core from the housing. 11. Install the heater core and housing in the reverse order of removal. Gremlin, Hornet, Concord, Spirit and Eagle See Figure 3 Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of the heater assembly on models without air conditioning except Matador and Pacer 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable and drain 2 qts. of coolant. 2. Disconnect the heater hoses and plug the hoses and core fittings. 3. Disconnect the blower wires and remove the motor and fan assembly. 4. Remove the housing attaching nut from the stud in the engine compartment. 5. Remove the package shelf, if so equipped. 6. Disconnect the wire at the resistor, located below the glove box. 7. Remove the instrument panel center bezel, air outlet, and duct on A/C models. 8. Disconnect the air and defroster cables from the damper levers. 9. Remove the right side windshield pillar molding, the instrument panel upper sheet metal screws and the cap screw at the right door post. 10. Remove the right cowl trim panel and door sill plate. 11. Remove the right kick panel and heater housing attaching screws. 12. Pull the right side of the instrument panel outward slightly and remove the housing. 13. Remove the core, defroster and blower housing. 14. Remove the core from the housing. 15. Installation is the reverse of removal. Pacer CAUTION When draining the coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted by the ethylene glycol antifreeze, and are quite likely to drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantity. Always drain the coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or several years old. See Figures 4 and 5 Fig. Fig. 4: Exploded view of the heater assembly on Pacer models without air conditioning Fig. Fig. 5: Exploded view of the heater assembly on Pacer models with air conditioning 1. Drain about two quarts of coolant from the radiator. 2. Disconnect the heater hoses from the heater core tubes and install plugs in the heater hoses. 3. Remove the vacuum hoses from the heater core housing cover clip and move the lines aside. 4. Remove the heater core housing cover screws. 5. Disconnect the overcenter spring from the cover and remove the cover. 6. Remove the heater core-to-housing attaching screws and remove the heater core. 7. Install the heater core in the reverse order of removal. Back to Top Drive Train AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Adjustments PEDAL FREE-PLAY 4-121 Engine Print See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Clutch linkage assembly1977-79 4-121 engine The clutch pedal free-play is adjusted by varying the length of the control cable. The preferred free-play is 1 1 / 8 in. (28.6mm). 1. To adjust the cable, loosen the cable locknut at the rear of the cable and pull the cable forward until the free-play is eliminated from the throwout lever. 2. Rotate the adjuster nut toward the rear of the cable until the nut tabs contact the clutch housing. 3. Release the cable housing and turn the adjuster nut until the tabs engage the slots on the clutch housing. 4. Tighten the clutch cable locknut. Recheck clutch pedal free-play. 6-Cylinder and V8 Engines See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Exploded view of the clutch pedal and linkage components on 6 and 8-cylinder engines through 1980 7 1 A free-play measurement of / 8 -1 / 8 in. (22.23-28.6mm) is acceptable. Adjust the free-play by varying the length of the bellcrank-to-throwout lever rod. Lengthen to reduce and shorten to increase free-play. The easiest way to measure free-play is to hold a yardstick alongside the clutch pedal and press the pedal down until you can feel spring tension. The 1981 and later 6-cylinder models and all 4-150 and 4-151 models have a hydraulic clutch which requires no adjustment. Several different clutch assemblies have been used over the years. For correct clutch identification, see the accompanying illustrations. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 4-121 Engine Fig. Fig. 3: Clutch driven plate used on 4-121 engines1977-79 models See Figures 3 and 4 Fig. Fig. 4: Clutch pressure plate used on 1977-79 4-121 engines with HR-1 4-speed transmission and all 1980-82 4-cylinder engines CAUTION The clutch driven disc may contain asbestos, which has been determined to be a cancer causing agent. Never clean clutch surfaces with compressed air! Avoid inhaling any dust from any clutch surface! When cleaning clutch surfaces, use a commercially available brake cleaning fluid. 1. Remove the transmission. 2. Mark the clutch cover and flywheel for reassembly. Remove the cover and driven plate by loosening the bolts alternately and in several stages to avoid cover distortion. Inspect the flywheel surface for heat cracks, scoring, or blue heat marks. Check the flywheel capscrews for proper torque. It will be necessary to lock-up the flywheel ring gear with a block or flywheel holding clamp tool before tightening these capscrews. To install: 3. Align the driven plate and the cover on the flywheel with the marks made during removal and install the cover bolts finger-tight. Make sure the cover is engaged with the flywheel dowel pins. 4. Using a clutch alignment tool, align the driven plate. Tighten the cover bolts to 23 ft. lbs. 5. Install the transmission and the clutch housing assembly. It may be necessary to raise the front of the engine. 6. Position the rear crossmember on the side sills and finger-tighten the bolts. Install the transmission-to-crossmember bolts. Tighten the crossmember nuts. 7. The remainder of the installation is the reverse of removal. Be sure, when installing the gearshift lever that the shift rail insert is facing straight down and the offset on the side of the lever fork is facing the right side of the extension housing before installing the lever. 4-150 Engine See Figures 5 and 6 Fig. Fig. 5: Exploded view of the 9 inch clutch assembly1975-76 models Fig. Fig. 6: Exploded view of the 10 inch clutch assembly1975-76 models CAUTION The clutch driven disc may contain asbestos, which has been determined to be a cancer causing agent. Never clean clutch surfaces with compressed air! Avoid inhaling any dust from any clutch surface! When cleaning clutch surfaces, use a commercially available brake cleaning fluid. 1. Remove the transmission. 2. Remove the starter. 3. Remove the throwout bearing and sleeve assembly. 4. Remove the bell housing. 5. Mark the clutch cover, pressure plate and the flywheel with a center punch so that these parts can be later installed in the same position. 6. Remove the clutch cover-to-flywheel attaching bolts. When removing these bolts, loosen them in rotation, one or two turns at a time, until the spring tension is released. The clutch cover is a steel stamping which could be warped by improper removal procedures, resulting in clutch chatter when reused. To install: 7. Remove the clutch assembly from the flywheel. 8. The clutch release bearing (throwout bearing) is lubricated at time of assembly and no attempt should be made to lubricate it. Put a small amount of grease in the pilot bushing. 9. Install the driven plate with the short end of the hub toward the flywheel. Use a spare transmission mainshaft or an aligning arbor to align the pressure plate assembly and the driven plate. 10. Leave the arbor in place while tightening the pressure plate screws evenly a turn or two at a time. Torque the bolts to 40 ft. lbs. 11. Install the bellhousing. Torque the bolts to 40 ft. lbs. 12. Install the throwout bearing and sleeve assembly. 13. Install the starter. 14. Install the transmission. 4-151 Engine See Figure 7 Fig. Fig. 7: Typical clutch driven disc used on 4-151 engines CAUTION The clutch driven disc may contain asbestos, which has been determined to be a cancer causing agent. Never clean clutch surfaces with compressed air! Avoid inhaling any dust from any clutch surface! When cleaning clutch surfaces, use a commercially available brake cleaning fluid. 1. Remove the starter, disconnect the slave cylinder spring at the throwout lever, and remove the transmission. 2. Remove the clutch housing to engine bolts. Remove the housing. 3. Remove the throwout bearing. 4. Matchmark the clutch cover and flywheel for installation. Loosen the clutch cover bolts alternately and evenly, to avoid distortion, and remove the clutch cover and disc. 5. Inspect the parts for signs of overheating (blue color), scoring, or abnormal wear. Overheated parts should be replaced. Deep scoring or wear may require replacement of the disc and cover, and refacing or replacement of the flywheel. To install: 6. Place the disc and cover on the flywheel, aligning the marks made previously if the same cover is being used. Be sure the cover is engaged with the dowel pins. Install the cover bolts finger-tight. 7. Align the disc with an alignment tool. 8. Tighten the cover bolts alternately and evenly to 23 ft. lbs. Remove the alignment tool. 9. Install the throwout bearing, clutch housing, and transmission. The housing-to-engine bolts and transmission-to-housing bolts should be tightened to 54 ft. lbs. 6 and 8-Cylinder Engines See Figures 8 through 32 Fig. Fig. 8: Clutch pressure plate for all 1977-78 models with SR4 4-speed transmission; 1979-80 6 and 8-cylinder Pacer, Concord and AMX models with SR4 4-speed transmission; 1982 6-cylinder Spirit and Concord models Fig. Fig. 9: Typical clutch driven disc used on 6 and 8-cylinder engines1977-82 models Fig. Fig. 10: Clutch pressure plate for all 1977-78 3-speed models; 1979 6-cylinder Spirit with 150T 3-speed or SR4 4-speed transmission; 1980 6-cylinder Spirit with 4-speed transmission; 1981 6-cylinder models; 1982 6-cylinder Eagle models Fig. Fig. 11: Typical clutch alignment tool, note how the splines match the transmission's input shaft Fig. Fig. 12: Loosen and remove the clutch and pressure plate bolts evenly, a little at a time ... Fig. Fig. 13: ... then carefully remove the clutch and pressure plate assembly from the flywheel Fig. Fig. 14: Check across the flywheel surface, it should be flat Fig. Fig. 15: If necessary, lock the flywheel in place and remove the retaining bolts ... Fig. Fig. 16: ... then remove the flywheel from the crankshaft in order replace it or have it machined Fig. Fig. 17: Upon installation, it is usually a good idea to apply a thread-locking compound to the flywheel bolts Fig. Fig. 18: Check the pressure plate for excessive wear Fig. Fig. 19: Be sure that the flywheel surface is clean, before installing the clutch Fig. Fig. 20: Install a clutch alignment arbor, to align the clutch assembly during installation Fig. Fig. 21: Clutch plate installed with the arbor in place Fig. Fig. 22: Clutch plate and pressure plate installed with the alignment arbor in place Fig. Fig. 23: Pressure plate-to-flywheel bolt holes should align Fig. Fig. 24: You may want to use a thread locking compound on the clutch assembly bolts Fig. Fig. 25: Install the clutch assembly bolts and tighten in steps, using an X pattern Fig. Fig. 26: Be sure to use a torque wrench to tighten all bolts Fig. Fig. 27: View of the clutch and pressure plate assembly Fig. Fig. 28: Troubleshooting the Manual Transmission and transfer Case Fig. Fig. 29: Troubleshooting the Manual Transmission and Transfer Case (Cont.) Fig. Fig. 30: Troubleshooting the Manual transmission and transfer case (Cont.) Fig. Fig. 31: Manual Transmission Application Chart Fig. Fig. 32: Troubleshooting Basic Clutch Problems 1. Remove the transmission and the starter. 2. Disconnect the clutch linkage at the release lever. 3. Remove the capscrews that hold the bellhousing (clutch housing) to the engine. It may be necessary to more the rear of the engine up or down to gain wrench clearance. Any shims between the housing and engine must be replaced in exactly the same place to prevent misalignment. 4. Remove the throwout lever, washer, bearing and sleeve assembly. 5. Matchmark the clutch cover, pressure plate, and flywheel before removal to ensure proper balance. 6. Loosen each clutch cover capscrew a few turns at a time until spring tension is released, then remove the cover, pressure plate, and disc. To install: 7. Check the pilot bushing in the end of the crankshaft for scoring or looseness. If it is necessary to replace the bushing, use either an expanding end slide hammer or a suitable tap. Screwing the tap into the bore until it bottoms will force the bushing out. Another way to remove the bushing is to pack it and the crankshaft cavity with grease, then insert the clutch shaft aligning tool (dummy pilot shaft) into the bushing and tap it with a soft hammer. The bushing will be pushed out. It is important to clean out all the grease. Lubricate the bushing with grease before installing the clutch. Sometimes there is a lubricating wick, which should be soaked in engine oil, then placed in the crankshaft cavity. 8. Inspect the flywheel surface for heat cracks, scoring, or blue heat marks. Check the flywheel capscrews for proper torque (105 ft. lbs.). It will be necessary to lock-up the flywheel ring gear with a block or flywheel holding clamp tool before tightening these capscrews. The throwout (release) linkage consists of a forked, pivoted lever contacting the bearing at one end and the linkage pushrod on the other. A return spring keeps the lever in contact with the ball pivot. The throwout bearing itself is prelubricated and cannot be repacked if dry. A bad bearing results in uneven clutch pedal pressure and a grinding, rattling noise when the pedal is depressed. Replace any noisy throwout bearings as soon as is practicable to prevent disintegration and possible transmission or clutch damage. 9. Slide the new clutch disc onto the transmission input shaft to check for binding. Remove any burrs from either the splines or hub using emery paper, then clean with a safe solvent. 10. Place the clutch disc against the flywheel and secure it by inserting a dummy pilot shaft (such shafts, made of wood, are available from automotive jobbers) or an old transmission input shaft. 11. Place the new pressure plate (it's always a good policy to replace the pressure plate when installing a new disc) in position, after first making sure that the clutch disc is facing the proper direction (the flywheel side is marked), and that the matchmarks are aligned if the old pressure plate is used. 12. Install all the capscrews finger-tight. Tighten the screws a little at a time, working around the pressure plate to avoid distorting it, to 40 ft. lbs. Remove the pilot shaft. Do not depress the clutch pedal until the transmission is installed or the throwout bearing will fall out. 13. Install the clutch housing, throwout bearing and transmission. Hook up the clutch linkage and check the adjustment. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Understanding the Clutch The purpose of the clutch is to disconnect and connect engine power at the transmission. A vehicle at rest requires a lot of engine torque to Print get all that weight moving. An internal combustion engine does not develop a high starting torque (unlike steam engines) so it must be allowed to operate without any load until it builds up enough torque to move the vehicle. To a point, torque increases with engine rpm. The clutch allows the engine to build up torque by physically disconnecting the engine from the transmission, relieving the engine of any load or resistance. The transfer of engine power to the transmission (the load) must be smooth and gradual; if it weren't, drive line components would wear out or break quickly. This gradual power transfer is made possible by gradually releasing the clutch pedal. The clutch disc and pressure plate are the connecting link between the engine and transmission. When the clutch pedal is released, the disc and plate contact each other (the clutch is engaged) physically joining the engine and transmission. When the pedal is pushed in, the disc and plate separate (the clutch is disengaged) disconnecting the engine from the transmission. Most clutch assemblies consists of the flywheel, the clutch disc, the clutch pressure plate, the throw out bearing and fork, the actuating linkage and the pedal. The flywheel and clutch pressure plate (driving members) are connected to the engine crankshaft and rotate with it. The clutch disc is located between the flywheel and pressure plate, and is splined to the transmission shaft. A driving member is one that is attached to the engine and transfers engine power to a driven member (clutch disc) on the transmission shaft. A driving member (pressure plate) rotates (drives) a driven member (clutch disc) on contact and, in so doing, turns the transmission shaft. There is a circular diaphragm spring within the pressure plate cover (transmission side). In a relaxed state (when the clutch pedal is fully released) this spring is convex; that is, it is dished outward toward the transmission. Pushing in the clutch pedal actuates the attached linkage. Connected to the other end of this is the throw out fork, which hold the throw out bearing. When the clutch pedal is depressed, the clutch linkage pushes the fork and bearing forward to contact the diaphragm spring of the pressure plate. The outer edges of the spring are secured to the pressure plate and are pivoted on rings so that when the center of the spring is compressed by the throw out bearing, the outer edges bow outward and, by so doing, pull the pressure plate in the same direction away from the clutch disc. This action separates the disc from the plate, disengaging the clutch and allowing the transmission to be shifted into another gear. A coil type clutch return spring attached to the clutch pedal arm permits full release of the pedal. Releasing the pedal pulls the throw out bearing away from the diaphragm spring resulting in a reversal of spring position. As bearing pressure is gradually released from the spring center, the outer edges of the spring bow outward, pushing the pressure plate into closer contact with the clutch disc. As the disc and plate move closer together, friction between the two increases and slippage is reduced until, when full spring pressure is applied (by fully releasing the pedal) the speed of the disc and plate are the same. This stops all slipping, creating a direct connection between the plate and disc which results in the transfer of power from the engine to the transmission. The clutch disc is now rotating with the pressure plate at engine speed and, because it is splined to the transmission shaft, the shaft now turns at the same engine speed. The clutch is operating properly if: 1. It will stall the engine when released with the vehicle held stationary. 2. The shift lever can be moved freely between 1st and reverse gears when the vehicle is stationary and the clutch disengaged. Back to Top Suspension And Steering AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Ball Joints INSPECTION - Except Pacer Print Be sure that the front wheel bearings are adjusted to specification before checking the upper ball joint. 1. Jack up the front of the car and place jackstands under the frame side sills. The control arms must hang free if an accurate reading is to be obtained. 2. Check the lower ball joints by grasping the lower portion of the wheel and pulling it in and out. 3. If there is noticeable lateral free-play, the lower ball joint is worn and must be replaced. The lower ball joints and control arms must be replaced as assemblies on Eagles. 4. To check the condition of the upper ball joint, place a dial indicator with its plunger against the tire scrub bead (just outside the whitewall). 5. Move the upper portion of the wheel and tire toward the car's center, while watching the dial indicator. 6. Move the wheel and tire back out while watching the indicator. 7. The upper ball joint should be replaced it is total movement is greater than 0.160 in. (4.06mm). The upper ball joints and control arms must be replaced as assemblies on 1980 Eagles. On 1981 and later Eagles the upper ball joints are replaceable separately. Pacer 1. Check that the front wheel bearings are adjusted properly. 2. Remove the lubrication plug from the lower ball joints. Insert a piece of stiff wire until it contacts the ball. Mark the wire even with the edge of the plug hole. 3. Measure from the end of the wire to the mark. If it exceeds 7 / 16 in. (11.11mm), the ball joint should be replaced. 4. Place a jack under the lower control arm and lift the wheel off the floor. 5. Push the top of the tire in and out. If there is any looseness, replace the upper ball joint. 6. Pry the upper control arm up and down. If there is any looseness, replace the upper ball joint. REMOVAL & INSTALLATION On Eagles, do not attempt to replace the ball joints separately. If the ball joints are worn, the control arms and ball joints must be replaced as complete assemblies. Lower Ball Joint 1. On all vehicles except Pacer, place a 2 in X 4 in. X 5 in. (51mm X 102mm X 127mm) block of wood on the side sill so that it supports the control arm. 2. Jack up the front end of the car and place jackstands underneath the frame side sills to support the body. 3. Remove the wheel and the brake drum. On cars equipped with disc brakes, remove the caliper and rotor. 4. Disconnect the lower control arm strut rod, on models other than Pacer. Disconnect the stabilizer bar, if so equipped. 5. Separate the steering arm from the steering knuckle. 6. Remove the ball stud retaining nut, after removing its cotter pin. 7. Install a ball joint removal tool then loosen the ball stud in the knuckle pin. Leave the tool in place on the stud. 8. Place a jackstand under the lower control arm. 9. Chisel the heads off the rivets which secure the ball joint to the control arm. Use a punch to remove the rivets. 10. Remove the tool from the ball stud. 11. Remove the ball stud from the knuckle pin and remove the joint from the control arm. To install: 12. Position the new ball joint so that its securing holes align with the rivet holes in the control arm. 13. Install the special CAUTION 5 / 16 in. bolts, used to secure the ball joint, loosely. 5 Use only the hardened /16in. bolts supplied with the ball joint replacement kit; standard bolts are not strong enough. 14. Install the steering strut and stop on the lower control arm. Tighten their bolts to 75 ft. lbs. 15. Tighten the 5 / 16 in. ball joint securing bolts to 25 ft. lbs. 16. Apply chassis grease to the steering stops and fit the knuckle pin and retaining nut on the ball stud; tighten the nut to 40 ft. lbs. through 1976, 75 ft. lbs. through 1976, 75 ft. lbs. thereafter, and 75 ft. lbs. on all Pacers. Install a new cotter pin. 17. Complete the installation procedure in the reverse order of removal and then check front end alignment. Upper Ball Joint 1. Perform Steps 1-3 of the lower ball joint removal procedure in this section. It is not necessary to remove the brake drum in Step 3. On 1981 and later Eagle models temporarily reinstall two lug nuts to retain each brake rotor. This eliminates repositioning rotors and calipers prior to reassembly. 2. News, perform Steps 6-9 of the lower ball joint removal procedure to the upper ball joint. 3. Separate the upper ball joint from the knuckle pin. To install: 4. Perform Steps 1-2 of the lower ball joint installation procedure. 5. Skip Step 3 and go on to Steps 4-5 of the lower ball joint installation procedure. 6. Complete the installation in the reverse order of removal and check front end alignment. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information FRONT SUSPENSION See Figures 1 and 2 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Front Suspension Component Locations - Late Model Eagle Fig. Fig. 2: Front Suspension Component Locations - Early Model Matador The front suspension on all models except Pacer is an independent linked type with the coil springs located between seats in the wheelwell panels and seats in the upper control arms. Rubber insulators between the springs and seats reduce noise transmission to the body. Direct acting, telescopic shock absorbers are located inside the coil springs and the control arms are attached to the body via rubber bushings. The suspension system is a double ball joint design, both upper and lower control arms each having one joint. On all models, strut rods serve to support the lower control arms. Stabilizer bars are used on some models. The Pacer front suspension is different from all other AMC cars. The coil spring is mounted between the two control arms; seated at the bottom on the lower control arm and at the top in the suspension/engine mount crossmember. The crossmember is isolated from the rest of the body structure by rubber mounting points. The shock absorbers are mounted inside the coil spring. The steering knuckle is attached to the upper and lower control arms by upper and lower ball joints. A front stabilizer bar is optional. The front end alignment must be checked after any disassembly procedure. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Front End Alignment Correct alignment of the front suspension is necessary to provide optimum tire life and for proper and safe handling of the vehicle. Caster and camber cannot be set or measured accurately without professional equipment. Toe-in can be adjusted with some degree of success without any special equipment. Print CASTER See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Caster angle affects straight line stability Caster is the tilt of the front steering axis either forward or backward away from the vertical. A tilt toward the rear is said to be positive and a forward tilt is negative. Caster is calculated with a special instrument but one can see the caster angle by looking straight down from the top of the upper control arm. You will see that the ball joints are not aligned if the caster angle is more or less than 0 degrees. If the vehicle has positive caster, the lower ball joint would be ahead of the upper ball joint center line. CAMBER See Figure 2 Fig. Fig. 2: Camber angle influences tire contact with the road Camber is the slope of the front wheels from the vertical when viewed from the front of the vehicle. When the wheels tilt outward at the top, the camber is positive. When the wheels tilt inward at the top, the camber is negative. The amount of positive and negative camber is measured in degrees from the vertical and the measurement is called camber angle. TOE-IN See Figure 3 Fig. Fig. 3: Toe-in means the distance between the wheels is closer at the front than at the rear of the wheels Toe-in is the amount, measured in a fraction of an inch, that the wheels are closer together in front than at the rear. Some vehicles are set with toe-out, that is, the wheels are closer together at the rear, than the front, to prevent excessive toe-in under power. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Lower Control Arm REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print Except Eagle and Pacer See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Lower control assemblyexcept Eagle and Pacer models The inner end of the lower control arm is attached to a removable crossmember. The outer end is attached to the steering knuckle pin and ball joint assembly. 1. Jack up the car and support it on axle stands under the subframes. 2. Remove the brake drum or caliper and rotor from the spindle. 3. Disconnect the steering arm from the knuckle pin. 4. Remove the lower ball joint stud cotter pin and nut. 5. Separate the ball joint from the knuckle pin using a ball joint removal tool. 6. Disconnect the sway bar from the control arm. 7. Unbolt the strut rod. 8. Remove the inner pivot bolt and the control arm. To install: 9. Reverse the removal procedure; do not tighten inner pivot bolt until car weight is on wheels. Tighten ball joint retaining nut to 40 ft. lbs. through 1976, 75 ft. lbs. thereafter, strut rod bolts to 75 ft. lbs., sway bar bolts to 8 ft. lbs., steering arm bolts to 65 ft. lbs. through 1979, 55 ft. lbs. thereafter, and control arm inner pivot bolt to 95 ft. lbs. through 1976, 110 ft. lbs. thereafter. Eagle 1. Remove the wheel cover. Remove and discard the cotter pin. Remove the nut lock and the hub pin. 2. Raise and support the front of the car. Remove the wheel. Remove the brake caliper from the knuckle and suspend it from the body of a length of wire; do not allow it to hand by the hose. Remove the rotor. 3. Remove the lower ball joint cotter pin and retaining nut. Discard the cotter pin. 4. Separate the ball joint stud from the steering knuckle using a ball joint removal tool. 5. Remove the halfshaft flange bolts and remove the half shaft. 6. Remove the strut rod-to-control arm bolts. Disconnect the stabilizer bar from the arm. 7. Remove the inner pivot bolt and remove the control arm. To install: 8. Place the control arm into position and install the inner pivot bolt, but do not tighten the pivot bolt yet. 9. Install the ball joint stud into the steering knuckle. Install the nut and tighten to 75 ft. lbs. Continue to tighten until the holes align and install a new cotter pin. 10. Connect the stabilizer bar to the arm; tighten the bolts to 7 ft. lbs. Install the strut rod; tighten to 45 ft. lbs. 11. Install the halfshaft-to-axle flange bolts; tighten to 45 ft. lbs. 12. Place a jack under the lower control arm. Raise the jack carefully to compress the spring slightly. Tighten the control arm pivot bolt to 110 ft. lbs. 13. Install the rotor, caliper, and hub nut. Tighten the hub nut to 180 ft. lbs. Install the nut lock and a new cotter pin. 14. Install the wheel. Check and adjust the front end alignment as necessary. Pacer 1. Disconnect the upper end of the shock absorber, raise the front end of the car and disconnect the lower end of the shock absorber and remove the shock absorber. 2. Disconnect the stabilizer bar at the lower control arm, if so equipped. 3. Remove the wheel, brake drum, or caliper and rotor. Do not allow the brake hose to support the weight of the caliper. Use wire to support it from the frame. 4. Remove the two bolts attaching the steering arm to the steering knuckle and more the steering arm aside. To install: 5. Install a spring compressor and compress the spring. 6. Remove the cotter pin and nut from the lower ball joint stud. Remove the ball joint from the steering knuckle using a ball joint removal tool. 7. Move the steering knuckle assembly out of the way. Support the assembly with wire from the upper control arm. 8. Remove the two pivot bolts that attache the lower arm to the front crossmember and remove the lower control arm. 9. Install the lower control arm in the reverse order of removal, tightening the ball joint stud nut to 75 ft. lbs., the steering arm attaching bolts to 80 ft. lbs. through 1976, 55 ft. lbs. 1977 and later, the shock absorber lower attaching nuts to 20 ft. lbs., the stabilizer bar locknut to 8 ft. lbs., and lastly, after the car has been lowered to the ground with the wheel and tire installed, tighten the lower control arm pivot bolts to 95 ft. lbs. through 1976, and 110 ft. lbs. thereafter. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Shock Absorber REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print See Figures 1, 2 and 3 Fig. Fig. 1: To remove the shock absorber, unfasten the lower mounting bolts ... Fig. Fig. 2: ... then unfasten the upper bracket mounting bolts Fig. Fig. 3: Remove the bracket and shock assembly, then separate the shock from the bracket When installing new shock absorbers, purge them of air by extending them in their normal position and compressing them while inverted. Do this several times. It is normal for there to be more resistance to extension than to compression. Except Pacer 1. Remove the two lower shock absorber attaching nuts. Remove the washers and the grommets. 2. Remove the upper mounting bracket nuts and bolts. 3. Remove the bracket, complete with shock. 4. Remove the upper attaching nut and separate the shock from the mounting bracket. 5. For adjustable shocks: To adjust the shock, compress the piston completely. Holding the upper part of the shock, turn the shock until the lower arrow is aligned with the desired setting. A click will be heard when the desired setting is reached. To install: 6. Fit the grommets, washers, upper mounting bracket and nut on the shock, in the reverse order of removal. Tighten the nut to 8 ft.lb. 7. Fully extend the shock and install two grommets on the lower mounting studs. 8. Lower the shock through the hole in the wheel arch. Fit the lower attachment studs through the lower spring seat. 9. Install the grommets, washers, and nuts. Tighten the nuts to 15 ft.lb. 10. Secure the upper mounting bracket with its attachment nuts and bolts. Tighten them to 20 ft. lbs. Pacer 1. Remove the shock absorber upper locknut. 2. Raise the car and remove the nuts from the lower shock absorber mounting studs. 3. Remove the shock along with the lower grommet and jounce bumper retainer from the shock absorber piston rod. 4. Install the retainer on the new shock and the lower grommet on the piston rod. 5. Extend the piston to full length and insert the shock through the lower control arm. 6. Install the locknuts on the lower mounting studs and lower the car. 7. Install the grommet, retainer, and locknut on the piston rod, making sure the grommet seats properly in the hole in the crossmember. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Spring REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print Except Pacer 1. Remove the shock absorber. 2. Install a spring compressor through the upper spring seat opening and bolt it to the lower spring seat using the lower shock absorber mounting holes. 3. Remove the lower spring seat pivot retaining nuts, then tighten the compressor tool to compress the spring about 1" (25.4mm). 4. Jack up the front of the car and support it on axle stands at the subframe (allowing the control arms to hang free). 5. Remove the front wheel and pull the lower spring seat out away from the car, then slowly release the spring tension and remove the coil spring and lower spring seat. To install: 6. Place the spring compressor through the coil spring and tape the rubber spring cushion to the small diameter end of the spring (upper). 7. Place the lower spring seat against the spring with the end of the coil against the formed shoulder in the seat. The shoulder and coil end face inwards, toward the engine, when the spring is installed. 8. Place the spring up against the upper seat, then align the lower spring seat pivot so that the retaining studs will enter the holes in the upper control arm. 9. Compress the coil spring and install the spring. 10. Then install the wheel and tire and lower the car to the floor (to place weight on suspension). 11. Install and tighten lower spring seat spindle retaining nuts and tighten them to 35 ft. lbs. 12. Remove the spring compressor and install the shock absorber. Pacer 1. Disconnect the upper end of the shock absorber. 2. Raise the front end of the car and support it. 3. Disconnect the lower end of the shock absorber and remove it. 4. Disconnect the stabilizer bar at the lower control arm, if so equipped. 5. Remove the wheel, brake drum, or caliper and rotor. Do not allow the brake hose to support the weight of the caliper; use a length of wire to suspend the caliper from the frame. 6. Remove the two bolts that attach the steering arm to the steering knuckle and more the steering arm aside. 7. Use a spring compressor to compress the coil spring. 8. Remove the cotter pin and nut from the lower ball joint stud and disengage the stud from the steering knuckle with a puller. 9. Move the steering knuckle, steering spindle, and support plate, or anchor plate assembly, aside to provide working clearance. Do not allow the brake hose to support the weight of these components. Use wire to hand the components from the upper control arm. 10. Move the lower control arm aside and remove the spring. 11. Position the upper end of the spring in the spring seat of the front crossmember. Align the cut-off end of the bottom coil with the formed shoulder is the spring seat. The top coil is flat and does not use an insulator. Use a floor jack or jackstand to support the spring until the spring compressor is installed. Install the spring compressor. 12. Assemble the remaining components of the front suspension in the reverse order of removal. Tighten the ball joint stud nut to 75 ft. lbs., the steering arm-to-knuckle attaching bolts to 80 ft. lbs. through 1976, 55 ft. lbs. 1977 and later, the shock absorber lower mounting nuts to 20 ft. lbs., and the stabilizer bar locknut to 8 ft. lbs. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Upper Control Arm REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print Except Pacer See Figures 1 and 2 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the upper control arm and shock absorber mountingexcept Eagle and Pacer Fig. Fig. 2: Front suspension componentsEagle models 1. Remove the shock absorber and compress the soil spring approximately 2 in. (51mm). Refer to the front spring removal and installation procedure in this section. 2. Jack up the front of the car and support the body on jackstands placed under the subframes (allow the control arms to hang free). 3. Remove the wheel and the upper ball joint cotter pin and retaining nut. 4. Separate the ball joint stud from the steering knuckle using a ball joint removal tool. 5. Remove the inner pivot bolts then remove the control arm. 6. To install, reverse the removal procedure. Do not tighten the pivot bolts nuts until the full weight of the car is on the wheels. The ball joint stud nut must be tightened to 40 ft. lbs., through 1975 and 75 ft. lbs. thereafter, the lower spring seat pivot retaining nuts to 35 ft. lbs., and the control arm inner pivot bolts to 45 ft. lbs. through 1976, 80 ft. lbs. 1977 and later. Pacer See Figure 3 Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of the front suspension assemblyPacer models 1. Raise and support the front of the vehicle. 2. Remove the wheel and tire. 3. Remove the cotter pin, locknut, and retaining nuts from the upper ball joint stud. 4. Loosen the stud from the steering knuckle with a ball joint removal tool. 5. Support the lower control arm with a floor jack. 6. Disengage the stud from the steering knuckle. 7. Remove the retaining nuts that attache the cross-shaft to the front crossmember and remove the upper control arm assembly. 8. Install the upper control arm in the reverse order of removal, tightening the cross-shaft retaining nuts to 80 ft. lbs., the upper ball joint stud to 75 ft. lbs., and if new bushings were installed, tighten the nuts to 60 ft. lbs. after the car is lowered to the floor. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Wheel Bearings 4-wheel drive models have sealed, non-adjustable front hubs and bearings. There are darkened areas surrounding the bearing races in the hubs, which are the result of a heat treatment process; the darkened areas do not signify a defect. INSPECTION Check to see the inner cones of the bearings are free to `creep' on the spindle. Polish and lubricate the spindle to allow `creeping' movement and to keep rust from forming. ADJUSTMENT See Figures 1 and 2 Print Fig. Fig. 1: With new or freshly packed bearings, tighten the nut while gently spinning the wheel, then adjust the bearings Fig. Fig. 2: After the bearings are adjusted, install the dust cap by gently tapping on the flangeDO NOT damage the cap by hammering on the center 1. With the tire and wheel removed and the car supported by a suitable and safe means, remove the dust cover from the spindle. 2. Remove the cotter pin and nut retainer. 3. Rotate the wheel while tightening the spindle nut to 20-25 ft. lbs. 4. Loosen the spindle nut 1 / 3 of a turn. 5. Rotate the wheel while tightening the spindle nut to 6 inch lbs. 6. Fit the nut retainer over the spindle and align the slots in it with the cotter pin hole. Insert the cotter pin. 7. Install the dust cover. 8. Install the wheel assembly. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Wheel Specifications See Figures 1 through 5 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Wheel Alignment Specificatioins Fig. Fig. 2: Gremlin/Hornet/Spirit/Concord Fig. Fig. 3: Wheel Alignment Specifications: Matador Fig. Fig. 4: Wheel Alignment Specifications: Pacer Fig. Fig. 5: Wheel Alignment Specifications: Eagle Back to Top Brakes AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Brake Drums REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print See Figures 1 through 6 Fig. Fig. 1: Typical front brake drum Fig. Fig. 2: Use a prytool to remove the dust cap... Fig. Fig. 3: ... then remove the cotter pin with a pair of needlenose pliers Fig. Fig. 4: Remove the bearing nut and washer ... Fig. Fig. 5: ... then remove the outer wheel bearing Fig. Fig. 6: Remove the brake drum from the vehicle 1. Remove the wheel cover, except on models with styled wheels which have the lug nuts exposed, and loosen the lug nuts. 2. Set the parking brake, block the rear wheels, and raise the front of the car, supporting it with jackstands. CAUTION Be sure that the car is securely supported. 3. Remove the lug nuts and the wheel. 4. Loosen the brake adjusting starwheel by removing the plug from the adjusting slot and inserting a thin screwdriver into the hole to push the adjusting lever away from the wheel. 5. Insert a brake adjusting tool into the hole and rotate the starwheel so that the shoes contract. It may not always be necessary to back off on the adjuster in order to remove the drum. 6. Remove the dust cover, grease cap, cotter pin, nut retainer, nut and the outer wheel bearing. 7. Remove the drum from the spindle. 8. Installation is performed in the reverse of or removal. Pack and adjust the wheel bearing as indicated in the wheel bearing procedure outlined in this section. Adjust the brakes, as outlined at the beginning of this chapter, after completing the drum installation. INSPECTION 1. Clean the drum. 2. Inspect the drum for scoring, grooves, cracks, and out-of-roundness. 3. Light scoring may be removed by dressing the drum with fine emery cloth. 4. Heavy scoring will require the use of a brake lathe to turn the drum. The service limit of the drum inside diameter is 0.060 in. (1.524mm) over standard diameter. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Brake Shoes REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print See Figures 1 through 13 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the self-adjusting front drum brake components Fig. Fig. 2: Common front drum brake assembly Fig. Fig. 3: Use a brake tool to release the secondary return spring ... Fig. Fig. 4: ... then remove the secondary spring Fig. Fig. 5: Use the brake tool to release the primary return spring ... Fig. Fig. 6: ... then remove the primary return spring Fig. Fig. 7: Remove the adjuster spring from the brake assembly Fig. Fig. 8: Remove the adjuster cable Fig. Fig. 9: Remove the adjuster cable guide from the brake shoe Fig. Fig. 10: Remove the shoe guide plate Fig. Fig. 11: Remove the adjuster lever ... Fig. Fig. 12: ... then, using a suitable tool, remove the hold-down springs and pins Fig. Fig. 13: Remove the adjusting screw assembly and the brake shoes If you are not thoroughly familiar with the procedure involved with brake shoe replacement, disassemble and assemble one side at a time, leaving the other side intact as a reference. 1. Remove the brake drum. CAUTION Do not depress the brake pedal once the drum has been removed. 2. Remove the adjusting lever tang from the hole in the secondary shoe by grabbing the lever with a pair of pliers. 3. Place a wheel cylinder clamp over the wheel cylinder to retain its piston while the brake shoes are removed. 4. Unfasten the return springs with a brake springs removal tool by twisting them off the anchor pin. 5. Carefully remove the secondary shoe return spring, the adjusting cable, primary shoe return spring, the cable guide, the adjusting lever and spring in that order. CAUTION Be careful that all of the components of the brake do not fly out at once when the spring tension is being released. 6. Unfasten the hold-down springs and withdraw the shoes. Be careful not to get grease on the lining surfaces of the shoes. To install: Always replace the shoes and linings on both wheels of the same axle; do not replace the shoes and linings on one side only. 7. If there is any grease contamination, clean all of the parts, except the drums, with mineral spirits. If there is brake fluid contamination, use alcohol to clean the parts. Then clean all parts, including the drums with soap and water. 8. Polish the legs on the brake support plate with fine emery cloth. If there are any grooves on the support plate which limit shoe movement, the plate must be replaced (do not attempt to regrind). 9. Lubricate the ledges on the support plate, anchor pin, adjusting cable guide, adjusting screw threads and the pivot with molybdenum disulfide grease. 10. Place the shoes on the support plate and retain them with the hold-down springs. The following sequence is for 10 in. (254mm) brakes; reverse Steps 5 and 6 for 9 in. (228.6mm) brakes. 11. Fit the adjusting cable eyelet over the anchor pin. 12. Install one end of the primary return spring in the primary shoe and the other end over the anchor pin with the brake spring tool. 13. Install the adjusting cable guide. 14. Fit the secondary shoe return spring in the same manner in which you installed the primary spring. 15. Install the adjusting screw assembly at the base of the brake shoe. Place the small hooked end of the adjusting spring into the large hole in the primary shoe. 16. Fit the large hooked end of the adjusting spring into the hole in the adjusting lever. 17. Engage the hooked end of the adjusting cable with the adjusting lever and place the cable over the cable guide. CAUTION Be sure that the adjusting cable is not twisted and that it cannot ride out of the guide. 18. Hook the tang on the adjusting lever into the large hole at the base of the secondary shoe by grasping the lever with pliers and pulling it into place. 19. Adjust the brakes and install the drums, as detailed elsewhere in this information. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information FRONT DRUM BRAKES See Figure 1 Print Fig. Fig. 1: Typical front drum brake components Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Wheel Bearings REMOVAL, PACKING & INSTALLATION Print 1. The outer bearing is removed as part of the brake drum removal procedure. 2. Use a brass drift to remove the inner bearing and cup from the hub. 3. For installation and packing refer to wheel bearing procedure in the front disc brake portion of this section. Adjustment The bearing adjustment procedure for models equipped with front drum brakes is the same as for the disc brake equipped models. Refer to the wheel bearing procedure in the front disc brakes portion of this section. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Wheel Cylinders OVERHAUL Print See Figures 1 through 7 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of common wheel cylinder components Fig. Fig. 2: On front drum brakes, remove the brake line from the brake hose ... Fig. Fig. 3: ... then remove the brake hose retainer clip Fig. Fig. 4: On rear drum brakes, it is only necessary to remove the brake line from the wheel cylinder Fig. Fig. 5: Loosen the brake hose-to-wheel cylinder nut ... Fig. Fig. 6: ... then disconnect the brake hose from the wheel cylinder Fig. Fig. 7: Unfasten its retaining bolts and remove the wheel cylinder from the backing plate 1. Raise the vehicle on a hoist and remove the wheel and drum from the brake to be serviced. 2. Remove the brake shoes and clean the backing plate and wheel cylinder. 3. Disconnect the brake line from the brake hose. Remove the brake hose retainer clip at the frame bracket and remove the hose from the wheel cylinder. (On the rear brakes it will only be necessary to remove the line from the cylinder). 4. Remove the cylinder mounting bolts and remove the cylinder. 5. Remove the boots from the cylinder ends and discard. Remove the pistons, remove and discard the seal cups, and remove the expanders and spring. 6. Inspect the bore and pistons for damage or wear. Damaged pistons should be discarded, as they cannot be reconditioned. Slight bore roughness can be removed using a brake cylinder hone or crocus cloth. (Cloth should be rotated in the bore under finger pressure. Do not slide lengthwise.) Use only lint free cloth for cleaning. 7. Clean the cylinder and internal parts using only brake fluid or denatured alcohol. 8. Insert the spring expander assembly. Lubricate all rubber parts using only fresh brake fluid. 9. Install new cups with the seal lips facing inward. 10. Install the pistons and rubber boots. Install the cylinder on the car in the reverse order or removal. Bleed the cylinder (see the preceding `Bleeding' information). Back to Top Body And Trim AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Doors REMOVAL & INSTALLATION 1. Match the hinge-to-body and hinge-to-door locations. Either support the door on jackstands or have somebody hold it for you. 2. On models with a center door check, push in on the claw and pull out the stopper pin. Alternatively, unbolt the door check from the door. Depending on equipment, it may be necessary to disconnect various wires running into the door. 3. Remove the lower hinge-to-door bolts. 4. Remove the upper hinge-to-door bolts and lift the door off the hinges. 5. If the hinges are being replaced, remove them from the door pillar. To install: 6. Install the door and hinges with the bolts finger-tight. 7. Adjust the door and tighten the hinge bolts. 8. Install the door check. ADJUSTMENT See Figures 1, 2 and 3 Print Fig. Fig. 1: The doors can be adjusted by loosening the bolts and moving the door to the desired position Fig. Fig. 2: Loosen the door striker bolts, hold the handle in the open position and close the door. The striker will move into the correct position Fig. Fig. 3: Location of the striker plate and lower block When checking door alignment, look carefully at each seam between the door and body. The gap should be constant and even all the way around the door. Pay particular attention to the door seams at the corners farthest from the hinges; this is the area where errors will be most evident. Additionally, the door should pull against the weatherstrip when latched to seal out wind and water. The contact should be even all the way around and the stripping should be about half compressed. The position of the door can be adjusted in three dimensions: fore and aft, up and down, in and out. The primary adjusting points are the hinge-to-body bolts. Apply tape to the fender and door edges to protect the paint. Two layers of common masking tape works well. Loosen the bolts just enough to allow the hinge to move. With the help of an assistant, position the door and retighten the bolts. Inspect the door seams carefully and repeat the adjustment until correctly aligned. The in-out adjustment (how far the door "sticks out" from the body) is adjusted by loosening the hinge-to-door bolts. Again, move the door into place, then retighten the bolts. This dimension affects both the amount of crush on the weatherstrips and the amount of "bite" on the striker. Further adjustment for closed position and smoothness of latching is made at the latch plate or striker. This piece is located at the rear edge of the door and it attached to the bodywork; it is the piece the latch engages when the door is closed. Although the striker size and style may vary between models or from front to rear, the method of adjusting it is the same: 1. Loosen the large cross-point screw(s) holding the striker. Know in advance that these bolts will be very tight; an impact screwdriver is a handy tool to have for this job. Make sure you are using the proper size bit. 2. With the bolts just loose enough to allow the striker to move if necessary, hold the outer door handle in the released position and close the door. The striker will move into the correct location to match the door latch. Open the door and tighten the mounting bolts. The striker may be adjusted towards or away from the center of the car, thereby tightening or loosening the door fit. The striker can be moved up and down to compensate for door position, but if the door is correctly mounted at the hinges this should not be necessary. Do not attempt to correct height variations (sag) by adjusting the striker. 3. Additionally, some models may use one or more spacers or shims behind the striker. These shims may be removed or added in combination to adjust the reach of the striker. 4. After the striker bolts have been tightened, open and close the door several times. Observe the motion of the door as it engages the striker; it should continue its straight-in motion and not deflect up or down as it hits the striker. 5. Check the feel of the latch during opening and closing. It must be smooth and linear, without any trace of grinding or binding during engagement and release. It may be necessary to repeat the striker adjustment several times (and possibly re-adjust the hinges) before the correct door to body match is produced. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Electric Tailgate Window REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print 1. Open the tailgate. 2. Remove the control handles and trim panel. 3. Raise the glass completely. To raise the glass with the tailgate open, manually depress the safety switch, mounted on the left auxiliary floor panel, and turn the key to the right. 4. Slide the glass assembly to disengage the regulator arms from the glass bottom channel and remove the glass. 5. If the glass is stuck in the down position due to a defective regulator: A. Remove the access holes covers. B. Remove the regulator handle assembly. C. Drill out the regulator pinion shaft housing rivets. D. Pull the shaft housing free and lift the glass from the tailgate. To install: 6. Installation is the reverse of removal. 7. Align the glass as necessary by loosening the glass slide channel screws and moving the glass as needed to obtain proper fit. Tighten the screws. 8. Installation is the reverse of removal. 9. Align the glass as necessary by loosening the glass slide channel screws and moving the glass as needed to obtain proper fit. Tighten the screws. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Hood REMOVAL & INSPECTION EXCEPT PACER Print See Figures 1, 2 and 3 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the hood and fender componentsexcept Pacer models Fig. Fig. 2: Matchmark the position of the hood to the hinge ... Fig. Fig. 3: ... then unfasten the bolts. With an assistant, remove the hood from the vehicle If the hood is properly aligned, prior to removal, matchmark the position of the hinges and hood reinforcement. 1. Raise the hood fully. 2. Disconnect the underhood light wire. 3. Matchmark the hood-to-hinge position. 4. While your assistant supports the hood, remove the hood-to-hinge bolts and lift off the hood. 5. Installation is the reverse of removal. Torque the bolts to 23 ft. lbs. Pacer See Figure 4 Fig. Fig. 4: Hood and front fender componentsPacer models If the hood is properly aligned, prior to removal, matchmark the position of the hinges and hood reinforcement. 1. Raise the hood fully. 2. Disconnect the underhood light wire. 3. Unbolt the grille from the hood. 4. Matchmark the hood-to-hinge position. 5. While your assistant supports the hood, remove the hood-to-hinge bolts and lift off the hood. 6. Installation is the reverse of removal. Torque the bolts to 23 ft. lbs. ALIGNMENT See Figures 5 through 9 Fig. Fig. 5: Loosen the hood hinge bolts to adjust the hood forwards and backwards Fig. Fig. 6: To adjust the hood vertically, turn the stop screws at the front and or rear of the hood Fig. Fig. 7: The hood pin can be adjusted to ensure it locks properly Fig. Fig. 8: Loosen the hinge-to-body bolts and move the hood up and down to adjust the rear height of the hood Fig. Fig. 9: The hood lock base can also be adjusted to ensure positive lock engagement Hood hinge mounting holes are oversized to permit movement for hood alignment. If the hood is to be moved to either side, the hood lock striker, hood lever lock and safety hook assembly must first be loosened. 1. Loosen the hinge mounting bolts slightly on one side and tap the hinge in the direction opposite to that in which the hood is to be moved. 2. Tighten the bolts. 3. Repeat this procedure for the opposite hinge. 4. Check that the lock striker, lever lock and safety hook are properly adjusted to ensure positive locking. 5. If the rear edge of the hood is not flush with the cowl, add or subtract shims (caster and chamber adjusting shims will work) or flat washers between the hinge and the hood at the rear bolt (hood too low) or front bolt (hood too high). Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Liftgate REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Sportabout 1. Open the liftgate fully. 2. Remove the anti-rattle pin. 3. Remove the upper trim molding and disconnect the defroster grid wires. Tape the ends to the glass. 4. Unbolt the supports and fold them downward. WARNING Never unbolt the supports unless the liftgate is fully opened. In any other position, the supports are under tension. 5. Close the liftgate in the locked position. 6. From inside, remove the liftgate-to-hinge screws. 7. Unlock the liftgate and remove it. To install: 8. Position the liftgate in the opening and lock it. 9. If removed, place the rubber gaskets on the hinges and insert the hinges boss into the gate. 10. Install the hinge-to-gate screws about 3 / 4 of the way. 11. From outside, unlock and fully open the liftgate. Allow it to slide down on the hinges. 12. Tighten the hinge screws to 11 ft.lbs. 13. Connect the defroster grid wires. 14. Install the molding. 15. Install the supports. 16. Install and adjust the anti-rattle pin. Print 17. Adjust the liftgate fit as described earlier. Gremlin See Figures 1 and 2 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the Gremlin liftgate components1975-77 models Fig. Fig. 2: Liftgate component locations1978 Gremlin models 1. Remove the upper center and corner finish moldings. 2. Open the liftgate fully. 3. Unbolt the supports and fold them downward. WARNING Never unbolt the supports unless the liftgate is fully opened. In any other position, the supports are under tension. 4. Close the liftgate in the locked position. 5. Lower the headliner and remove the nut from the hinge studs. 6. Remove the hinge reinforcements. 7. Disconnect the defroster grid wires. Tape the ends to the glass. 8. Unlock the liftgate and remove it. To install: 9. Position the liftgate in the opening and lock it. 10. If removed, place the rubber gaskets on the hinges and insert the studs into the gate. 11. Install the hinge reinforcements onto the studs. 12. Tighten the hinge nuts to 11 ft. lbs. 13. Connect the defroster grid wires. 14. Install the headliner. 15. Install the supports. Pacer Sedan See Figure 3 Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of the liftgate assemblyPacer models 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Disconnect the rear window defogger and tape the wire ends to the glass. 4. Remove the right and left headliner upper rear finish moldings. 5. Remove the liftgate trim panel. 6. Disconnect the wires from the wiper motor. 7. Tie a length of string to the motor wiring and pull the wiring from the liftgate. You'll use the string to guide the wiring into position during installation. 8. Disconnect the washer hose from the nozzle tube. 9. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 10. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 11. Close the liftgate. 12. Remove the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 13. Unlatch the tailgate and remove it. To install: 14. Installation is the reverse of removal. Torque the hinge nuts to 12 ft. lbs. Don't lose the shims. Make sure they are placed under their respective hinges. 15. Adjust the liftgate as necessary. Pacer Wagon See Figure 4 Fig. Fig. 4: Pacer wagon liftgate component locations 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Remove the right and left headliner upper rear finish moldings. 4. Disconnect the rear window defogger and tape the wire ends to the glass. 5. Carefully pull down the rear edge of the headliner and disconnect the liftgate harness from the body harness. 6. Remove the nuts attaching the liftgate harness tube to the body. 7. Remove the liftgate harness. 8. Disconnect the washer hose from the nozzle tube. 9. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 10. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 11. Close the liftgate. 12. Remove the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 13. Unlatch the tailgate and remove it. To install: 14. Installation is the reverse of removal. Torque the hinge nuts to 12 ft. lbs. Don't lose the shims. Make sure they are placed under their respective hinges. 15. Adjust the liftgate as necessary. Spirit, Eagle SX/4 and AMX See Figures 5 and 6 Fig. Fig. 5: Exploded view of the liftgate assemblySpirit and AMX models Fig. Fig. 6: Liftgate component locationsSpirit models 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Disconnect the rear window defogger and tape the wire ends to the glass. 4. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 5. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 6. Close the liftgate. 7. Remove the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 8. Unlatch the tailgate and remove it. To install: 9. Installation is the reverse of removal. Torque the hinge nuts to 12 ft. lbs. Don't lose the shims. Make sure they are placed under their respective hinges. 10. Adjust the liftgate as necessary. Concord and Eagle Hatchback See Figure 7 Fig. Fig. 7: Exploded view of the liftgate componentsHornet and Concord hatchback models 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Disconnect the rear window defogger and tape the wire ends to the glass. 4. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 5. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 6. Close the liftgate. 7. Remove the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 8. Unlatch the tailgate and remove it. To install: 9. Installation is the reverse of removal. Torque the hinge nuts to 12 ft. lbs. Don't lose the shims. Make sure they are placed under their respective hinges. 10. Adjust the liftgate as necessary. Concord and Eagle Wagon See Figure 8 Fig. Fig. 8: Hornet and Concord hatchback station wagon liftgate components 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Disconnect the rear window defogger and tape the wire ends to the glass. 4. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 5. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 6. Close the liftgate. 7. Remove the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 8. Unlatch the tailgate and remove it. To install: 9. Installation is the reverse of removal. Torque the hinge nuts to 12 ft. lbs. Don't lose the shims. Make sure they are placed under their respective hinges. 10. Adjust the anti-rattle pin for proper fit. Adjust the liftgate as necessary. ALIGNMENT - Sportabout 1. Remove the anti-rattle pin and striker. 2. Remove the rear finish moldings. 3. Loosen the hinge-to-body nuts. 4. Move the liftgate to obtain the proper fit. 5. Tighten the nuts to 11 ft. lbs. 6. Install the moldings, striker and anti-rattle pin. Pacer Sedan FRONT SURFACE ADJUSTMENT 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Remove the right and left headliner upper rear finish moldings. 4. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 5. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 6. Close the liftgate. 7. Remove the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 8. Unlatch the tailgate and lift it at the leading edge, supporting it with wood blocks. 9. Loosen the hinge-to-liftgate screws. 10. Install or remove shims as required, between the hinge and liftgate, to obtain the desired gap. 11. Tighten the screws to 12 ft. lbs. 12. Remove the blocks and position the liftgate in its opening. 13. Position the hinge-to-body shim packs and install the nuts. Torque the nuts to 12 ft. lbs. 14. Install the rear upper finish molding. 15. Open the liftgate and install the supports and clips. 16. Adjust the striker and tighten the bolts to 52 ft. lbs. REAR SURFACE ADJUSTMENT 1. Remove the striker. 2. Move the liftgate rear surface downward by placing a wood block on top of the body opening drain trough and carefully hammering the trough downward. 3. Move the liftgate rear surface up by placing a wood block under the drain trough and carefully hammering the trough upward. 4. Install the striker and adjust it for proper latching and alignment. Tighten the striker bolts to 52 ft. lbs. Pacer Wagon GAP ADJUSTMENT 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Remove the right and left headliner upper rear finish moldings. 4. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 5. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 6. Close the liftgate. 7. Loosen the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 8. Install or remove shims as required, between the hinge and body, to obtain the desired gap. 9. Tighten the screws to 12 ft. lbs. 10. Tighten the nuts to 12 ft. lbs. 11. Install the rear upper finish molding. 12. Open the liftgate and install the supports and clips. 13. Adjust the striker and tighten the bolts to 52 ft. lbs. FRONT SURFACE ADJUSTMENT 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 4. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 5. Close the liftgate. 6. Remove the hinge-to-body nuts, keeping track of the shim packs for each hinge. 7. Open the liftgate at the leading edge and support it with wood blocks. 8. Loosen the hinge-to-liftgate screws. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 9. Install or remove shims as required, between the hinge and liftgate, to obtain the desired gap. 10. Tighten the screws to 12 ft. lbs. 11. Tighten the nuts to 12 ft. lbs. 12. Install the rear upper finish molding. 13. Open the liftgate and install the supports and clips. 14. Adjust the striker and tighten the bolts to 52 ft. lbs. Spirit, Eagle SX/4 and AMX SIDE GAP ADJUSTMENT 1. Remove the anti-rattle pin and striker. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 4. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 5. Close the liftgate. 6. Loosen the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 7. Install or remove shims as required, between the hinge and body, to obtain the desired gap. 8. Tighten the screws to 12 ft. lbs. 9. Tighten the nuts to 12 ft. lbs. 10. Install the rear upper finish molding. 11. Open the liftgate and install the supports and clips. 12. Install the anti-rattle pin. Adjust the striker and tighten the bolts to 52 ft. lbs. FRONT GAP ADJUSTMENT 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 4. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 5. Disconnect the rear defogger wires and tape the wire ends to the glass. 6. Close the liftgate. 7. Remove the hinge-to-body nuts, keeping track of the shim packs for each hinge. 8. Open the liftgate at the leading edge and support it with wood blocks. 9. Loosen the hinge-to-liftgate screws. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 10. Install or remove shims as required, between the hinge and liftgate, to obtain the desired gap. 11. Tighten the screws to 12 ft. lbs. 12. Tighten the nuts to 12 ft. lbs. 13. Install the rear upper finish molding. 14. Open the liftgate and install the supports and clips. 15. Connect the rear defogger wires. 16. Adjust the anti-rattle pin for proper fit. Tighten the screws to 25 in. lbs. Adjust the striker and tighten the bolts to 52 ft. lbs. Concord and Eagle Hatchback SIDE GAP ADJUSTMENT 1. Remove the anti-rattle pin and striker. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 4. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 5. Close the liftgate. 6. Loosen the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 7. Install or remove shims as required, between the hinge and body, to obtain the desired gap. 8. Tighten the screws to 12 ft. lbs. 9. Tighten the nuts to 12 ft. lbs. 10. Install the rear upper finish molding. 11. Open the liftgate and install the supports and clips. 12. Install the anti-rattle pin. Adjust the striker and tighten the bolts to 52 ft. lbs. FRONT GAP ADJUSTMENT 1. Open the liftgate. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 4. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 5. Disconnect the rear defogger wires and tape the wire ends to the glass. 6. Close the liftgate. 7. Remove the hinge-to-body nuts, keeping track of the shim packs for each hinge. 8. Open the liftgate at the leading edge and support it with wood blocks. 9. Loosen the hinge-to-liftgate screws. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 10. Install or remove shims as required, between the hinge and liftgate, to obtain the desired gap. 11. Tighten the screws to 12 ft. lbs. 12. Tighten the nuts to 12 ft. lbs. 13. Install the rear upper finish molding. 14. Open the liftgate and install the supports and clips. 15. Connect the rear defogger wires. 16. Adjust the anti-rattle pin for proper fit. Tighten the screws to 25 in.lb. Adjust the striker and tighten the bolts to 52 ft. lbs. Concord and Eagle Wagon GAP ADJUSTMENT 1. Remove the anti-rattle pin and striker. 2. Remove the rear upper finish molding. 3. Remove the retainer clips from the ball stud sockets on the liftgate. 4. With the liftgate fully open, pull the supports off of the ball studs. Swing the supports down and out of the way. WARNING Never attempt to remove the supports with the lift gate closed or partially closed! Closing the liftgate puts the supports under tremendous pressure! 5. Close the liftgate. 6. Loosen the hinge-to-body nuts. Keep track of the shim pack for each hinge. 7. Install or remove shims as required, between the hinge and body, to obtain the desired gap. 8. Tighten the screws to 12 ft. lbs. 9. Tighten the nuts to 12 ft. lbs. 10. Install the rear upper finish molding. 11. Open the liftgate and install the supports and clips. 12. Install the anti-rattle pin. Adjust the striker and tighten the bolts to 52 ft. lbs. REAR SURFACE ADJUSTMENT 1. Remove the striker. 2. Move the liftgate rear surface downward by placing a wood block on top of the body opening drain trough and carefully hammering the trough downward. 3. Move the liftgate rear surface up by placing a wood block under the drain trough and carefully hammering the trough upward. 4. Install the striker and adjust it for proper latching and alignment. Tighten the striker bolts to 10 ft. lbs. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Manual Door Locks REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Lock Cylinder 1. Remove the rubber sealer along the rear edge of the door to expose the lock cylinder retainer. 2. Remove the retainer with a small prybar. 3. Remove the lock cylinder and extension rod from the outside of the door. 4. Installation is the reverse of removal. Latch and Control Linkage 1. Remove the door trim panel and water shield. 2. Remove the lock cylinder. 3. Remove the bolts from the control assembly. Push it into the door and lower it to the bottom. Print 4. Disconnect the control arm from the door latch and remove the control assembly through the access hole in the bottom of the door. 5. Remove the bolts attaching the door latch to the door panel. Push the latch in and turn it 90° to free it from the lock lever rod. Remove it through the lower access hole. 6. Installation is the reverse of removal. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Manual Tailgate Window REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Print 1. Open the tailgate. 2. Remove the trim panel. 3. Raise the glass completely. 4. Slide the glass assembly to disengage the regulator arms from the glass bottom channel and remove the glass. 5. If the glass is stuck in the down position due to a defective regulator: A. Remove the access holes covers. B. Remove the regulator handle assembly. C. Drill out the regulator pinion shaft housing rivets. D. Pull the shaft housing free and lift the glass from the tailgate. 6. Installation is the reverse of removal. 7. Align the glass as necessary by loosening the glass slide channel screws and moving the glass as needed to obtain proper fit. Tighten the screws. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Power Door Locks REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Switch Print 1. Disconnect the battery ground. 2. Remove the door trim panel and watershield. 3. Remove the switch housing from the inner door panel. 4. Disconnect the wiring and pry up the switch retaining clips. Remove the switch. 5. Installation is the reverse of removal. Actuator Motor 1. Disconnect the battery ground. 2. Remove the door trim panel and watershield. 3. Using a 1 / 4 in. drill bit, drill out the motor mounting rivets. 4. Disconnect the motor actuator rod from the bellcrank. 5. Disconnect the wires from the motor and lift the motor from the door. 6. Installation is the reverse of removal. Use 1 / 4 X 1 / 2 in. bolts and locknuts in place of the rivets Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Rear Window Glass Print These models use a butyl tape retention method for rear window glass installation. An electric hot knife, tool J-24709-01 or equivalent, is REMOVAL & INSTALLATION All Except the Spirit Hatchback and Eagle SX/4 necessary for this procedure. Also, an assistant would be very helpful. 1. Cover all adjacent areas, both exterior and interior. 2. If equipped, remove the wiper arm. 3. Remove all finish moldings around the glass. 4. If equipped, disconnect the wires from the rear defogger and tape the ends to the glass. Use extreme care to avoid and scratching or damage to the defogger grid! 5. Using the hot knife, insert the blade under the edge of the glass. Cut the material as close as possible to the inside surface of the glass. Clean the hot knife blade with steel wool while it is still warm. 6. Slowly push the glass outward along the top with your feet until the butyl tape stretches 1-2 in. Have an assistant cut the tape with a scissors, completely around the glass. Use wood blocks to keep the glass from touching the adhesive as the tape is being cut, or it will immediately restick. 7. When the glass is out, remove all traces of the butyl tape from the glass opening and ball it up to lift off any remaining deposits. Use 3M General Purpose Adhesive Cleaner, or equivalent, to clean up the area. To install: 8. Make sure that there is no molding- or metal-to-glass interference. 9. Make sure that all molding clips are properly positioned and not broken. 10. Repair any broken weld studs. 11. The two rubber spacer blocks below the glass at the outer ends must be in position to prevent the glass from settling and breaking. 12. Make sure that the anti-squeak protector is in position on the lower flange. 13. Using spacer blocks, temporarily position the glass in the opening. 14. Center the glass to achieve equal spacing all around. 15. Using masking tape at the bottom center or at the rubber spacers, and extending it over the body panels, mark the glass-to-body position for permanent installation. 16. Cut the tape just below the glass and remove the glass. 17. Clean the pinchweld and glass thoroughly. It must be clean and dry. 18. Apply a thin, uniform, 1 / 2 in. wide coat of butyl tape primer on both the pinchweld flange and the glass edge, and allow it to dry for 10 minutes. 19. Apply butyl tape to the pinchweld flange, midway up the right side, flush with the edge of the flange. If you're using a butyl tape kit with an integral sponge rubber filler, make sure that the filler is flush with the edge of the flange. 20. Strip off the paper as the tape is applied. Cut the tape at 45° angles downward and to the outside, and butt the ends of the tape firmly to prevent leaks. 21. Place the glass in the opening, aligning it exactly with the tape markers you previously made. Be exact! The primer will adhere to the butyl tape on contact! 22. Firmly press the glass against the butyl tape with hand pressure. 23. Carefully trim excess primer with a razor blade. 24. Clean the glass and surrounding area with 3M General Purpose Adhesive Cleaner, or equivalent. 25. Recheck the glass-to-butyl tape contact, applying additional hand pressure as needed. Dull spots indicate poor contact. 26. Apply 3M Windshield Sealer, or equivalent, to any open spots. 27. Install all previously removed parts. Spirit Liftaback and Eagle SX/4 The rear window on these models is retained by a rubber channel. 1. Cover all adjacent areas. 2. Remove the wiper arm and motor. 3. From inside, peel the rubber channel down while pushing outward on the glass. If the rubber channel is bonded to the pinchweld, spray a generous amount of 3M Release Agent, or equivalent, between the rubber channel and body. Allow 2-3 minutes for the stuff to work. 4. Once the glass has been pushed away from the upper flange area, pull the window assembly up and out of the lower flange area. 5. Remove all sealer from the flange with 3M General Purpose Adhesive Cleaner, or equivalent. 6. Install the rubber channel on the glass. 7. Lubricate the rubber channel liberally with soapy water and position the assembly in the body opening. 8. Using a small wood spatula, pry the rubber channel over the pinchweld flange while an assistant pushes inward on the glass. 9. Apply 3M Windshield sealer, or equivalent, between the channel and glass using a hand applicator gun. 10. Wipe off surplus sealer. 11. Install the wiper motor and arm. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Tailgate REMOVAL & INSTALLATION Dual Tailgate Print See Figure 1 Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the tailgate componentsMatador wagon models 1. Open the tailgate vertically. 2. Remove the torsion rod retainer clip. 3. Use locking pliers to twist the torsion rod a little bit counterclockwise, and pull the torsion rod out of the right lower hinge. CAUTION Never try to pull the torsion rod out when the tailgate is opened horizontally! 4. Pivot the torsion rod away from the body. 5. Close the tailgate, then open it horizontally. 6. Open the rear compartment, remove the plastic liner screws, lift the liner and disconnect the wiring harness at the tailgate. 7. Support the weight of the tailgate on some kind of stand, or have a couple of friends hold it. 8. Disconnect the support cable from the left upper hinge. 9. Disengage the right lower hinge by manually tripping the latch. 10. Trace the outline of the left lower hinge on the tailgate inner panel. 11. Unbolt the left lower hinge from the inner panel and remove the tailgate. 12. Installation is the reverse of removal. Adjust the tailgate for fit as necessary. ADJUSTMENT Left Upper Hinge 1. Remove the striker pin from the right upper bracket. 2. Loosen the eccentric roller pin setscrew in the body half of the left upper hinge. 3. Insert a screwdriver in the slot in the bottom of the pin. 4. Rotate the pin in the desired direction. 5. Tighten the setscrew. 6. Install the striker pin at the right pillar bracket and adjust it up or down to allow the pin to enter the latch in the center of the opening. Right Lower Hinge 1. Remove the striker pin from the right upper bracket. 2. Loosen the body half of the right lower hinge. 3. Adjust the hinge to provide smooth vertical and horizontal operation. 4. Tighten the body half hinge bolts. 5. Install the striker pin at the right pillar bracket and adjust it up or down to allow the pin to enter the latch in the center of the opening. Back to Top AMC Coupes/Sedans/Wagons 1975-1988 Repair Information Windshield Bonded windshields require special tools and special removal procedures to be performed to ensure the windshield will be removed without being broken. For this reason we recommend that you refer all removal and installation to a qualified technician. Print CAUTION Always wear heavy gloves and safety glasses when handling glass to reduce the risk of injury. When replacing a cracked windshield, it is important that the cause of the crack be determined and the condition corrected, before new glass is installed. The cause of the crack may be an obstruction or a high spot somewhere around the flange of the opening; cracking may not occur until pressure from the high spot or obstruction becomes particularly high due to winds, extremes of temperature or rough terrain. When a windshield is broken, the glass may have already fallen or been removed from the weatherstrip. Often, however, it is necessary to remove a cracked or otherwise imperfect windshield that is still intact. In this case, it is a good practice to crisscross the glass with strips of masking tape before removing it; this will help hold the glass together and minimize the risk of injury. If a crack extends to the edge of the glass, mark the point where the crack meets the weather strip (use a piece of chalk to mark the point on the cab, next to the weatherstrip). Later, examine the window flange for a cause of the crack which started at the point marked. The higher the temperature of the work area, the more pliable the weather strip will be. The more pliable the weather strip, the more easily the windshield can be removed. There are two methods of windshield removal, depending on the method of windshield replacement chosen. When using the short method of installation, it is important to cut the glass from the urethane adhesive as close to the glass as possible. This is due to the fact that the urethane adhesive will be used to provide a base for the replacement windshield. When using the extended method of windshield replacement, all the urethane adhesive must be removed from the pinchweld flange so, the process of cutting the window from the adhesive is less critical. REMOVAL See Figures 1 and 2 Fig. Fig. 1: Common windshield mounting Fig. Fig. 2: Use a hot knife to cut the windshield adhesive 1. Place a protective covering around the area where the glass will be removed. 2. Remove the windshield wiper arms, the cowl vent grille, the windshield supports, the rear view mirror and the interior garnish moldings. 3. Remove the exterior reveal molding and glass supports from the windshield. 4. Using the hot knife cut the windshield from the urethane adhesive. If the short method of glass replacement is to be used, keep the knife as close to the glass as possible in order to leave a base for the replacement glass. 5. With the help of an assistant, remove the glass. 6. If the original glass is to be reinstalled, place it on a protected bench or a holding fixture. Remove any remaining adhesive with a razor blade or a sharp scraper. Any remaining traces of adhesive material can be removed with denatured alcohol or lacquer thinner. When cleaning the windshield glass, avoid contacting the edge of the plastic laminate material (on the edge of the glass) with a volatile cleaner. Contact may cause discoloration and deterioration of the plastic laminate. DO NOT use a petroleum based solvent such as gasoline or kerosene; the presence of oil will prevent the adhesion of new material. INSPECTION Inspection of the windshield opening, the weather strip and the glass may reveal the cause of a broken windshield; this can help prevent future breakage. If there is no apparent cause of breakage, the weatherstrip should be removed from the flange and the flange inspected. Look for high weld or solder spots, hardened spot welds sealer, or any other obstruction or irregularity in the flange. Check the weatherstrip for irregularities or obstructions in it. Check the windshield to be installed to make sure that it does not have chipped edges. Chipped edges can be ground off, restoring a smooth edge to the glass and minimizing concentrations of pressure that cause breakage. Remove no more than necessary, in an effort to maintain the original shape of the glass and the proper clearance between it and the flange of the opening. INSTALLATION Short Method See Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6 Fig. Fig. 3: Apply primer to the windshield as shown Fig. Fig. 4: Applying sealant to the windshield Fig. Fig. 5: Trim the sealant to accept the reveal trim molding Fig. Fig. 6: With an assistant, install the glass into the frame 1. Apply masking across the windshield pillar-to-windshield opening, then cut the tape and remove the windshield. 2. Using an alcohol dampened cloth, clean the metal flange surrounding the windshield opening. Allow the alcohol to air dry. 3. Using the pinchweld primer found in the service kit, apply it to the pinchweld area. DO NOT let any of the primer touch the exposed paint or damage to the finish may occur; allow five minutes for the primer to dry. 4. Cut the tip of the adhesive cartridge approximately 3 / 15 inch (5mm) from the end of the tip. 5. Apply the adhesive first in and around the spacer blocks. Apply a smooth continuous bead of adhesive into the gap between the glass edge and the sheet metal. If necessary use a flat bladed tool to paddle the material into position. Sbe sure that the adhesive contacts the entire edge of the glass and extends to fill the gap between the glass and the solidified urethane base. 6. With the aid of a helper, position the windshield on the filler strips against the two support spacers. The vehicle should not be driven and should remain at room temperature for six hours to allow the adhesive to cure. 7. Spray a mist of water onto the urethane. Water will assist in the curing process. Dry the area where the reveal molding will contact the body and glass. 8. Install new reveal moldings. Remove the protective tape covering the butyl adhesive on the underside of the molding. Push the molding caps onto each end of one of the reveal moldings. press the lip of the molding into the urethane adhesive while holding it against the edge of the windshield. Take care to seat the molding in the corners. The lip must fully contact the adhesive and the gap must be entirely covered by the crown of the molding. Slide the molding caps onto the adjacent moldings. Use tape to hold the molding in position until the adhesive cures. 9. Install the wiper arms and the interior garnish moldings. The vehicle should not be driven and should remain at room temperature for six hours to allow the adhesive to cure. Extended Method 1. Using a strip filler, install the sealing strip onto the pinchweld flange. The joint of the molding should be located at the bottom center of the molding. 2. Apply masking tape across the windshield pillar-to-windshield opening, then cut the tape and remove the windshield. 3. Using an alcohol dampened cloth, clean the metal flange surrounding the windshield opening. Allow the alcohol to air dry. 4. Using the pinchweld primer, found in the service kit, apply it to the pinchweld area. DO NOT let any of the primer touch the exposed paint for damage to the finish may occur; allow five minutes for the primer to dry. 5. With the aid of an assistant, position the windwhield on the filler strips against the two support spacers. 6. Cut the tip of the adhesive cartridge approximately 3 / 8 in. from the end of the tip. 7. Apply the adhesive first in and around the spacer blocks. Apply a smooth continuous bead of adhesive into the gap between the glass edge and the sheet metal. If necessary, use a flat bladed tool to paddle the material into position. Be sure that the adhesive contacts the entire edge of the glass and extends to fill the gap between the glass and the primed sheet metal. The vehicle should not be driven and should remain at room temperature for six hours to allow the adhesive to cure. 8. Spray a mist of warm or hot water onto the urethane. Water will assist in the curing process. Dry the area where the reveal molding will contact the body and glass. 9. Install the reveal molding onto the windshield and remove the masking tape from the inner surface of the glass. 10. Press the lip of the molding into the urethane adhesive while holding it against the edge of the windshield. Take care to seat the molding in the corners. The lip must fully contact the adhesive and the gap must be entirely covered by the crown of the molding. Use tape to hold the molding in position until the adhesive cures. 11. Install the wiper arms and the interior garnish moldings. Back to Top