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Page 514 Important: ^ The "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) mode is NOT the runout of time allowed to perform a specific procedure. It is the amount of time used to record each snapshot of information used for calculating "AVG" when in the "MIN MAX" mode. Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections The previous diagnostic procedure was written to detect intermittents using the DMM set to voltage. Whether using the current, voltage, or resistance setting to detect intermittents, it is necessary to properly connect the DMM to the circuit. Following are examples of the various methods of connecting the DMM to the circuit to be checked: ^ Backprobe both ends of the connector and either hold the leads in place while manipulating the connector or tape the leads to the harness for continuous monitoring while performing other operations or test driving. (Do not backprobe "Weather Pack (R)" type connectors.) ^ Disconnect the harness at both ends of the suspect circuit where it connects either to a component or to other harnesses. ^ Use J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit to connect the DMM to the circuit. ^ If the system being diagnosed has a specified pinout or breakout box, it may be used to simplify connecting the DMM to the circuit or for checking multiple circuits quickly. Intermittent and Poor Connections Most intermittence are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring, although occasionally a sticking relay or solenoid can be a problem. Some items to check are: ^ Poor mating of connector halves, or terminals not fully seated in the connector body (backed out). ^ Dirt or corrosion on the terminals. The terminals must be clean and free of any foreign material which could impede proper terminal contact. ^ Damaged connector body, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt, as well as not maintaining proper terminal orientation with the component or mating connector. ^ Improperly formed or damaged terminals. All connector terminals in problem circuits should be checked carefully to ensure good contact tension. Use a corresponding mating terminal to check for proper tension. ^ The J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit must be used whenever a diagnostic procedure requests checking or probing a terminal. Using the adapter will ensure that no damage to the terminal will occur, as well as giving an idea of whether contact tension is sufficient. ^ Poor terminal to wire connection. Some conditions which fall under this description are poor crimps, poor solder joints, crimping over wire insulation rather than the wire itself, corrosion in the wire to terminal contact area, etc. ^ Wire insulation which is rubbed through, causing an intermittent short as the bare area touches other wiring or parts of the vehicle. ^ Wiring broken inside the insulation. This condition could cause a continuity check to show a good circuit, but if only one or two strands of a multi-strand type wire are intact, resistance could be far too high. To avoid any of the above problems when making wiring or terminal repairs, always follow the instructions for wiring and terminal repair. Schematic Symbols Page 1074 12. Install the valve lifter retainer. 13. Install the cylinder head. 14. Install the accessory drive belt. 15. Install the radiator and A/C condenser. 16. Install the radiator grille assembly. Refer to Body and Frame. 17. Raise the vehicle. 18. Install the exhaust pipe to the exhaust manifold. 19. Lower the vehicle. 20. Charge the A/C system. Refer to Heating and Air Conditioning. 21. Connect the negative battery cable. Page 636 Page 388 Page 1051 Compression Check: Testing and Inspection Perform the following steps in order to conduct a compression test: 1. Conduct the following steps in order to check cylinder compression: a. Ensure engine is at room temperature. b. Disconnect wiring from the ignition module. c. Remove the spark plugs. d. Throttle-body valve should be wide open. e. Ensure battery should be at or near full charge. 2. For each-cylinder, crank engine through four compression strokes. 3. The lowest reading cylinder should not be less than 70% of the highest. 4. No cylinder reading should be less than 689 kPa (100 psi). NOTE The results of a compression test will fall into the following categories: ^ Normal - Compression builds up quickly and evenly to specified compression on each cylinder. ^ Piston Rings - Compression low on first stroke. Tends to build up on following strokes but does not reach normal. Improves considerably with addition of oil. ^ Valves - Compression low on first stroke. Does not tend to build up on the following strokes. Does not improve much with addition of oil. Use approximately three squirts from a plunger-type oiler. Service and Repair Wiper Switch: Service and Repair The wiper/washer switch assembly is part of the steering column assembly. The multifunction lever is part of the optional cruise control. MIL ON - A/T Stuck In 3rd/Instrument Cluster Inoperative Ignition Switch: All Technical Service Bulletins MIL ON - A/T Stuck In 3rd/Instrument Cluster Inoperative BULLETIN NUMBER: SB01-04-S002 ISSUE DATE: AUGUST 2001 GROUP: ELECTRICAL MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LAMP (MIL) ON, TRANSMISSION STUCK IN THIRD GEAR, INSTRUMENT CLUSTER INOPERATIVE (Replace Ignition Switch) AFFECTED VEHICLES 1997 - 2000 Hombre pickup with 4L60-E Automatic Transmission SERVICE INFORMATION Condition: Some customers may comment on one or more of the following conditions: The Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) is ON. The transmission is stuck in third gear. The instrument cluster is inoperative. Upon investigation, one or all of the diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, and P1860 may be set. Possible Cause: The most likely cause of this condition may be a loss of power to the transmission on circuit 1020. This loss of power may be caused by an open in the ignition switch. This condition may also be the result of an incorrect installation of an aftermarket electronic device such as a remote starter or alarm system. Correction: Follow the procedures in this bulletin for diagnosing if battery voltage is present at the fuse listed in the chart in step 1. Then follow the service procedures for diagnosing fault and repair as needed. 1. With the ignition switch in the RUN position, test for battery voltage at the appropriate fuse listed. 2. If battery voltage is present at the fuse, inspect circuit 1020 between the fuse and the transmission for possible opens. If battery voltage is not present at the fuse, replace the ignition switch using the ignition switch replacement procedure in the Steering Wheel and Column sub-section of the applicable Service Manual. 3. If the vehicle is equipped with an aftermarket electronic device (i.e., alarm or remote starter) and the DTCs are being set when the device is being used, verify that the appropriate fuse listed above is being supplied battery voltage during operation. If voltage is not present at this fuse, these DTCs will be set due to lack of power at the solenoids. This condition is most likely to occur with an incorrectly installed remote starting system. If this is the case, refer the customer to the installer of the system for corrections. Page 90 Vehicle Control Module Connector C2 (Red) (W/ M/T) Page 335 Fuse Block Details The Fuse Block Details schematic shows all of the wiring between a fuse and the components connected to the fuse. The Fuse Block Details schematic is extremely helpful in locating a short circuit that causes a fuse to open. Ground Distribution a sample Ground Distribution schematic for the Headlamps. It shows exactly which components share each ground. This information can often be a time saver when troubleshooting ground circuits. For example, if both Headlamps and the Park/Turn Lamp on one side are out, suspect an open in their common ground wire or the ground connection Diagrams Brake Fluid Pressure Sensor/Switch: Diagrams Brake Pressure Warning Switch Page 904 Power Steering Fluid: Service and Repair PROCEDURE 1. Raise the front end of the vehicle off the ground until the wheels are free to turn. Remove the fluid return hose at the pump inlet connector and plug the connector port on the pump. Position the hose toward a large container to catch the draining fluid. 2. While an assistant is filling the reservoir with new power steering fluid, run the engine at idle. Turn the steering wheel from stop to stop. DO NOT contact wheel stops or hold the wheel in a corner or fluid will stop and the pump will be in pressure relief mode. A sudden overflow from the reservoir may develop if the wheel is held at a stop. 3. Install all the pipes and hoses. Fill the system with new power steering fluid and bleed the system.Operate the engine for about 15 minutes. Remove the pump return hose at the pump inlet and plug the connection on the pump. While refilling the reservoir, check the draining fluid for contamination. If foreign material is still evident, replace all hoses, disassemble and clean or replace the power steering system components. Do not reuse any drained power steering fluid. Page 884 Fluid - Differential: Application and ID KEY TO LUBRICATION ABBREVIATIONS NOTE: Some manufacturer lubricant names may differ from the following list. If the manufacturer does not recommend a specific lubricant, use the following. AF Dexron-III Automatic Transmission Fluid Power Steering, Dexron-II CC Motor Oil, API Service CC CD Motor Oil, API Service CD CE Motor Oil, API Service CE EC Ethylene Glycol Coolant GF-1 Motor oil, API Service GF-1 GL-4 Gear Oil, API Service GL-4 GL-5 Gear Oil, API Service GL-5 HB Hydraulic Brake Fluid, SAE J1703, DOT-3 or 4 LM Lithium Multipurpose Grease PC Carburetor Cleaner MO Motor Oil, API service MO SG Motor Oil, API service SG SH Motor Oil, API service SH WB Wheel Bearing Grease Service Precautions Power Steering Line/Hose: Service Precautions CAUTION: Do not start the engine with any power steering hose disconnected, or damage to the components could occur. Locations Page 215 Page 941 Brake Bleeding: Service and Repair System Flushing Flushing is done at each bleeder valve similar to the bleeding procedure. The difference-is that the bleeder valve is opened 1 1/2 turns and fluid is forced through the pipes, hoses, and bleeder valves until it comes out clear in color. Refer to Hydraulic System, Service and Repair. Check the master cylinder fluid level after flushing at each bleeder valve and refill as required. After flushing, make sure the master cylinder reservoir is filled to the correct level. Page 645 Transmission Mode Switch: Adjustments Adjustment Procedure - Check the switch for proper operation. - The engine must be in the P (Park) or N (Neutral) positions only. If adjustment is required, loosen the switch retaining bolts and rotate the switch slightly. - Tighten the bolts and check the switch for proper operation. - Repeat the switch adjustment procedure until the engine starts when the shift lever is positioned in park and neutral. Page 471 Labor Time includes administrative time allowance. MIL ON - A/T Stuck In 3rd/Instrument Cluster Inoperative Ignition Switch: Customer Interest MIL ON - A/T Stuck In 3rd/Instrument Cluster Inoperative BULLETIN NUMBER: SB01-04-S002 ISSUE DATE: AUGUST 2001 GROUP: ELECTRICAL MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LAMP (MIL) ON, TRANSMISSION STUCK IN THIRD GEAR, INSTRUMENT CLUSTER INOPERATIVE (Replace Ignition Switch) AFFECTED VEHICLES 1997 - 2000 Hombre pickup with 4L60-E Automatic Transmission SERVICE INFORMATION Condition: Some customers may comment on one or more of the following conditions: The Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) is ON. The transmission is stuck in third gear. The instrument cluster is inoperative. Upon investigation, one or all of the diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, and P1860 may be set. Possible Cause: The most likely cause of this condition may be a loss of power to the transmission on circuit 1020. This loss of power may be caused by an open in the ignition switch. This condition may also be the result of an incorrect installation of an aftermarket electronic device such as a remote starter or alarm system. Correction: Follow the procedures in this bulletin for diagnosing if battery voltage is present at the fuse listed in the chart in step 1. Then follow the service procedures for diagnosing fault and repair as needed. 1. With the ignition switch in the RUN position, test for battery voltage at the appropriate fuse listed. 2. If battery voltage is present at the fuse, inspect circuit 1020 between the fuse and the transmission for possible opens. If battery voltage is not present at the fuse, replace the ignition switch using the ignition switch replacement procedure in the Steering Wheel and Column sub-section of the applicable Service Manual. 3. If the vehicle is equipped with an aftermarket electronic device (i.e., alarm or remote starter) and the DTCs are being set when the device is being used, verify that the appropriate fuse listed above is being supplied battery voltage during operation. If voltage is not present at this fuse, these DTCs will be set due to lack of power at the solenoids. This condition is most likely to occur with an incorrectly installed remote starting system. If this is the case, refer the customer to the installer of the system for corrections. Page 829 Hose/Line HVAC: Service and Repair Removal and Installation Compressor And Condenser Hose Remove or Disconnect 1. Negative battery cable. 2. Recover refrigerant from the system. 3. Compressor and condenser hose bolt and washer. 4. Compressor and condenser hose from compressor. 5. Sealing washers. Page 495 Double Diaphragm Motors can be operated by vacuum in two directions. When there is no vacuum, the motor is in the center "AT REST" position. Some Vacuum Motors such as the Servo Motor in the Cruise Control can position the actuating arm at any position between fully extended and fully retracted. The servo is operated by a control valve that applies varying amounts of vacuum to the motor. The higher the vacuum level, the greater the retraction of the motor arm. Servo Motors work like the two position motors; the only difference is in the way the vacuum is applied. Servo Motors are generally larger and provide a calibrated control. Page 205 Engine Temperature Sensor: Connector Views Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor W/ Engine Coolant Temperature Gauge Sensor (2.2L) Diagram Information and Instructions Engine Temperature Sensor: Diagram Information and Instructions Abbreviations A/C ....................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................ Air Conditioning CKT .................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................................... Circuit CONN ....................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................. Connector EBCM .................................................. .............................................................................................................................. Electronic Brake Control Module EBTCM ........................................................................................................................................................ Electronic Brake and Traction Control Module ECM ........................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... Engine Control Module HARN .................................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................... Harness I/P .................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................... Instrument Panel IPC .......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................... Instrument Panel Cluster LH ..................................... .............................................................................................................................................................. ........................ Left Hand PCM ........................................................................................................... ................................................................................. Powertrain Control Module RH .......................... .............................................................................................................................................................. ................................. Right Hand TERM ............................................................................................. ...........................................................................................................................Terminal Power Distribution The Power Distribution schematic shows the wiring from the Battery and Generator to the Starter Solenoid, Fuse Block, ignition Switch and Light Switch. The first component after a Fusible Link is also shown. In certain instances, the first component after a Fuse Block fuse and Light Switch is also shown. The Power Distribution schematic refers to Fuse Block Details or the appropriate section schematics. By using these schematics, power distribution wiring can be followed from the Battery and Generator to the first component after a Fusible Link, Fuse or Light Switch. The ability to follow the power distribution wiring to the first component in each circuit is extremely helpful in locating short circuits which cause fusible links and fuses to open. A sample Power Distribution schematic. it shows how voltage is applied from the positive battery terminal to the various circuits on the vehicle. For example, battery voltage is applied to the Starter Solenoid, Fusible Link D, Fuses 1 and 2 in the Fuse Block and the Light Switch in the LH Pod. These fuses are said to be "Hot At All Times", since battery voltage is always applied to them. Notice that battery voltage is also applied to "Fusible Link F" and "Coolant Fan Relay." Page 340 Important: ^ The "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) mode is NOT the runout of time allowed to perform a specific procedure. It is the amount of time used to record each snapshot of information used for calculating "AVG" when in the "MIN MAX" mode. Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections The previous diagnostic procedure was written to detect intermittents using the DMM set to voltage. Whether using the current, voltage, or resistance setting to detect intermittents, it is necessary to properly connect the DMM to the circuit. Following are examples of the various methods of connecting the DMM to the circuit to be checked: ^ Backprobe both ends of the connector and either hold the leads in place while manipulating the connector or tape the leads to the harness for continuous monitoring while performing other operations or test driving. (Do not backprobe "Weather Pack (R)" type connectors.) ^ Disconnect the harness at both ends of the suspect circuit where it connects either to a component or to other harnesses. ^ Use J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit to connect the DMM to the circuit. ^ If the system being diagnosed has a specified pinout or breakout box, it may be used to simplify connecting the DMM to the circuit or for checking multiple circuits quickly. Intermittent and Poor Connections Most intermittence are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring, although occasionally a sticking relay or solenoid can be a problem. Some items to check are: ^ Poor mating of connector halves, or terminals not fully seated in the connector body (backed out). ^ Dirt or corrosion on the terminals. The terminals must be clean and free of any foreign material which could impede proper terminal contact. ^ Damaged connector body, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt, as well as not maintaining proper terminal orientation with the component or mating connector. ^ Improperly formed or damaged terminals. All connector terminals in problem circuits should be checked carefully to ensure good contact tension. Use a corresponding mating terminal to check for proper tension. ^ The J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit must be used whenever a diagnostic procedure requests checking or probing a terminal. Using the adapter will ensure that no damage to the terminal will occur, as well as giving an idea of whether contact tension is sufficient. ^ Poor terminal to wire connection. Some conditions which fall under this description are poor crimps, poor solder joints, crimping over wire insulation rather than the wire itself, corrosion in the wire to terminal contact area, etc. ^ Wire insulation which is rubbed through, causing an intermittent short as the bare area touches other wiring or parts of the vehicle. ^ Wiring broken inside the insulation. This condition could cause a continuity check to show a good circuit, but if only one or two strands of a multi-strand type wire are intact, resistance could be far too high. To avoid any of the above problems when making wiring or terminal repairs, always follow the instructions for wiring and terminal repair. Schematic Symbols Page 245 Door Switch: Diagrams Front Side Door Jamb Switch, LH Front Side Door Jamb Switch, RH Page 984 FUSE 10, ECM IGN Page 940 Brake Bleeding: Service and Repair Master Cylinder Bench Bleeding NOTE: The purpose of bench bleeding the master cylinder is to remove air from it prior to installation. This reduces the amount of bleeding needed after it is installed on the vehicle. 1. Plug the outlet ports and mount the master cylinder in a vise with the front end tilted slightly down. 2. Fill the reservoir with clean brake fluid. 3. Using a tool with a smooth rounded end, stroke the primary piston about 25 mm (1 inch) several times. ^ As air is bled from the master cylinder, the primary piston will not travel the full 25 mm (1 inch) stroke. 4. Reposition the master cylinder in the vise with the front end tilted slightly up. 5. Again stroke the primary piston about 25 mm (1 inch) several times. 6. Reposition the master cylinder in the vise to the level position. 7. Loosen the plugs one at a time and push the piston into the bore to force the air from the cylinder. ^ To prevent air from being sucked back into the cylinder, tighten the plug(s) before allowing the piston to return to its original position. 8. Fill the reservoir. ^ Normal bleeding procedures should be followed after the master cylinder is installed. Page 314 Fuse Block Details The Fuse Block Details schematic shows all of the wiring between a fuse and the components connected to the fuse. The Fuse Block Details schematic is extremely helpful in locating a short circuit that causes a fuse to open. Ground Distribution a sample Ground Distribution schematic for the Headlamps. It shows exactly which components share each ground. This information can often be a time saver when troubleshooting ground circuits. For example, if both Headlamps and the Park/Turn Lamp on one side are out, suspect an open in their common ground wire or the ground connection Page 587 Impact Sensor: Diagrams Supplemental Restraint Arming Sensor Supplemental Restraint (Discriminating) Sensor, LH Engine - Knocking, Rattling/Tapping Noise Connecting Rod: All Technical Service Bulletins Engine - Knocking, Rattling/Tapping Noise BULLETIN NUMBER: SB99-01-S001 ISSUE DATE: JANUARY 1999 GROUP: ENGINE 1996-97 HOMBRE (TH) 2.2L ENGINE: KNOCK, RATTLE, AND TAP NOISE AFFECTED VEHICLES 1996-97 Hombre (TH) models equipped with 2.2L engine. SERVICE INFORMATION Condition: On some affected vehicles, the engine may emit a knocking, rattling, tapping, or ticking noise before it has reached operating temperature. The noise may also occur at operating temperature under light load or deceleration conditions. This noise does not result in any damage but may be objectionable to some vehicle owners. This noise should not be confused with other sources of noise such as accessory drive ticks, exhaust system rattles, clutch or flywheel noise, etc. Possible Cause: Under certain conditions, the piston may be excessively rocking in the cylinder bore. Diagnosis: If possible, have the customer leave the vehicle overnight to allow the engine to stabilize at ambient temperature. Start the vehicle and as soon as possible, operate the engine between 2,000 and 2,200 RPM. if necessary, on automatic transmission equipped models, shift the vehicle manually into 1st or 2nd gear to maintain the RPM range when driving. IMPORTANT In manual 1st or 2nd, the vehicle may not be able to maintain normal traffic speed within the range between 2,000 and 2,200 RPM. Be aware that other drivers may not be prepared for a vehicle traveling at a much slower speed. If possible, attempt to go to a rural area or to an area that has light traffic. NOTE The noise may be louder if the ambient temperature is cooler and will be much less noticeable with the engine at operating temperature. Correction: To correct this condition, replace all of the piston and rod assemblies using part numbers listed in the Parts Information section of this bulletin. Follow the procedures outlined in this bulletin and the appropriate Workshop Manual for the proper service procedure. SERVICE PROCEDURE 1. Remove the engine accessory bracket to expose the front of the engine block and cylinder head mating area. 2. Inspect the engine to see if it has a bright orange or red letter "A" marking. This marking is located on the front of the engine block behind the accessory bracket, directly above the timing chain housing cover and below the engine block-to-cylinder head mating area. If so, the pistons must be replaced using the appropriate part numbers from the table in the Parts Information section of this bulletin. 3. Disassemble the engine as needed to remove the pistons using the service procedures outlined in Engine Mechanical section of the appropriate Workshop Manual. If this engine has the "A" marking, disassemble the pistons from the rods and discard the pistons. 4. Using a ball-type or self-centering honing tool, deglaze the cylinder bore lightly, only to remove any deposits that may have formed. 5. For engines with "A" marking, assemble the pistons to the connecting rods using J 24086-C. IMPORTANT Prior to assembly, it is necessary to properly orient the pis tons on the connecting rod and to orient the piston rod assembly properly in the engine to prevent noise. Inspect the lower end of the connecting rod on one side of the connecting rod, and located a "bump" that points toward the small end of the connecting rod. This "bump" is located at the top of the thrust face of the connecting rod where the beam of the connecting rod forms into the Page 560 Page 697 Alignment: Service and Repair General Information GENERAL INFORMATION Satisfactory vehicle operation may occur over a wide range of front wheel alignment settings. If the settings vary beyond certain tolerances, adjustments are advisable. Set the front wheel alignment to specifications while the vehicle is in its normally loaded condition. Vehicles which are consistently operated with heavy loads should have toe-in adjusted with the vehicle under heavy load. This procedure should result in longer tire life. Install alignment equipment according to the manufacturer's instructions then measure alignment angles and record the readings. If adjustments are required, make them in order: caster, camber, and toe-in. Preliminary Inspection NOTE: Before making any adjustments affecting caster, camber, or toe-in, the following front end inspections should be made. 1. Check the tires for proper inflation pressure. 2. Inspect the hub and bearing assemblies for excessive wear. 3. Inspect the ball joints, tie rod ends, relay rods and idler arm. 4. Check the tires and wheels for runout. 5. Check the vehicle trim heights. Any corrections must be made before adjusting caster, camber, or toe-in. 6. Check the steering gear for looseness at the frame. 7. Inspect the shock absorbers for leaks or any noticeable noise. 8. Check the control arms or stabilizer shaft attachments for looseness. 9. Inspect the alignment equipment, and when using it follow the manufacturer's instructions. 10. Check the level of the vehicle. The vehicle must be on a level surface, fore, aft, and side to side. Camber and Caster CAMBER AND CASTER NOTE: ^ Before adjusting caster and camber angles, the front bumper should be raised and released twice to allow the vehicle to return to its normal height. ^ Caster and camber adjustments are made by inserting shims between the upper control arm shaft and the frame bracket. Shims may be added, subtracted or transferred to change the readings. ^ To adjust caster and camber, loosen the upper control arm shaft-to-frame nuts, add or remove shims as required, and torque the nuts. Toe-in must be checked after changing caster or camber. 1. To adjust caster, transfer shims from front to rear or rear to front. The transfer of one shim from the rear bolt to the front bolt will decrease positive caster. Page 778 Page 575 Knock Sensor: Diagrams Knock Sensor (2.2L) Page 117 Engine Control Module: Service and Repair Powertrain Control Module (PCM) The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) is the control center of the fuel injection system. It constantly looks at the information from various sensors, and controls the systems that affect emission or engine performance. The PCM also performs the diagnostic function of the system. It can recognize operational problems, alert the driver through the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL), and store a DTC or DTCs which identify the problem areas to aid the technician in making repairs. See Introduction in Powertrain Control Module for more information on using the diagnostic functions of the PCM. EEPROM This assembly contains the functions of the Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) and is a permanent part of the PCM. The EEPROM contains the calibrations needed for a specific vehicle applications and is serviced only through a re-programming procedure. PCM Function The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) supplies either 5 or 12 volts to power various sensors or switches. This is done through resistance's in the PCM which are so high in value that a test light will not light when connected to the circuit. In some cases, even an ordinary shop voltmeter will not give an accurate reading because its resistance is too low. Therefore, a 10 megohm input impedance digital voltmeter is required to assure accurate voltage readings. The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) controls most components with electronic switches which complete a ground circuit when turned ON. These switches are arranged in groups of 4 and 7, called either a surface mounted quad driver module, which can independently control up to 4 outputs (PCM terminals), or output driver modules, which can independently control up to 7 outputs. Not all outputs are always used. PCM Re-Programming The replacement PCM must be reprogrammed and the crankshaft position system variation procedure must be performed. Refer to the latest Techline information on PCM re-programming and this section for the Crankshaft Position System Variation Procedure. Page 177 Parking Brake Warning Switch: Description and Operation The parking brake switch is located on the parking brake lever assembly. It turns on the "BRAKE" lamp when the parking brake is applied and turns it off when the parking brake is released. Page 892 The updated Engine Oil Usage Test / Report is divided into two parts, PROCEDURE # 1 and PROCEDURE # 2. Procedure # 1, the inspection and testing portion of the Engine Oil Usage Test / Report, are eligible for warranty submission. Procedure # 1 warranty claim may only be submitted ONE time per vehicle. Review Procedure # 1 Results and perform the appropriate action. Complete all steps in Procedure #1 before continuing on to Procedure # 2 (if required). Procedure # 2, the validation portion, is NOT reimbursable under warranty. Complete all steps in Procedure # 2. Review Procedure # 2 Results and perform the appropriate action. The Technician, Service Manager and Customer are to acknowledge the findings by signing and dating the bottom of the Engine Oil Usage Test / Report. Attach a copy of the completed report to the back of the Repair Order (R/O) hard copy and provide a copy to the customer. NOTE: 1. Normal authorization procedures must be followed for such repairs. Locations Brake Switch - TCC: Locations A/C - Suction Line Screen Kit Recommendations Refrigerant Filter: Technical Service Bulletins A/C - Suction Line Screen Kit Recommendations TSB IB04-12-S003 J 44551 A/C Suction Screen Kit Repair Recommendations And Procedures After Compressor Failures Issue Date: March, 2004 Affected Vehicles 1996-2000 Isuzu Hombre (TH) and 2003-2004 Isuzu Ascender (US). Service Information After a compressor failure, it is extremely important to eliminate and/or contain the debris that causes repeat repairs. The debris generated from a compressor failure is discharged into the compressor suction line, the discharge line, the condenser and the liquid line. The use of the J 44551 Suction Screen Kit DOES NOT replace the need for liquid line filters as described in the vehicle Service Manual. Liquid line filters should be used whenever possible (after a catastrophic compressor failure) to protect the expansion device (orifice tube or TXV) from debris. Analysis of failed replacement compressors show the debris discharged into the INLET side of the compressor (suction line) is often pulled into the replacement compressor. It is important to keep this debris out of the new compressor to avoid repeat compressor failure. The J 44551 Suction Screen Kit is designed to help protect the NEW (replacement) compressor from ingesting debris that was sent into the SUCTION side of the system during a compressor failure. The J 44551 kit supplies your dealership with the right tools and supplies to cover the Delphi HD6, HU6 and HT6 compressors for most Isuzu applications. Delphi V5 and V7 compressors already have this screen installed in the suction port of the compressor and do not need an additional screen installed. Refer to the Service Manual for identification of Delphi compressors. Service Procedure Tools Required J 44551 Suction Screen Kit The J 44551 Suction Screen Kit contains three different screen sizes. It is important to select the correct size screen that will press fit into the suction port of the compressor hose assembly. The screen should not be installed loose inside the hose assembly. Installation Procedure 1. Evacuate the air conditioning system completely using the applicable recovery equipment. 2. Remove the bolt that attaches the manifold of the muffler assembly hose to the air conditioning compressor. 3. Use the Suction Port Sizing Tool in order to determine the appropriate size filter screen (see figure 1). Page 148 Supl Rst Diagnostic Energy Reserve Module 1. Connect the DERM electrical connector to the DERM. 2. Connect the connector lock. Supl Rst Diagnostic Energy Reserve Module 3. Install the DERM to the mounting bracket. Tighten Tighten nuts to 3 N.m (25 lb in). Tighten screws 1 N.m (5 lb in). 4. Install the right hand cowl kick panel. Refer to Cowl klick Panel Trim Replacement in Interior Trim. 5. Connect the right hand sill plate. Refer to Sill Plate Replacement in Interior Trim. 6. Connect the right hand sound insulator. Refer to Instrument Panel Replacement in Interior Trim. 7. Enable the Supplemental Restraint System (SRS). Refer to Enabling the SRS. Electronic Brake Control Module Electronic Brake Control Module: Service and Repair Electronic Brake Control Module Electronic Brake Control Module (EBCM) REMOVE OR DISCONNECT 1. Negative battery cable. 2. Four electrical connectors. 3. Four T-25 Torx bolts. 4. Electronic Brake Control Module (EBCM) from Brake Pressure Modulator Valve (BPMV). A light amount of force may be necessary to remove the EBCM. NOTE: ^ Do not pry on the EBCM or BPMV with a mechanical aid. Excessive force will cause damage to the EBCM. ^ Do not reuse the EBCM gasket or mounting bolts. Always install a new gasket, and mounting bolts with a new EBCM. ^ Clean Top of the BPMV with a clean, dry cloth. INSTALL OR CONNECT 1. New EBCM gasket onto BPMV. NOTE: Do not use RTV or any other type of sealant on the EBCM gasket or mating surfaces. 2. EBCM to BPMV. ^ Inspect Gasket for correct alignment. 3. Four new EBCM bolts. ^ Tighten Four bolts to 5 Nm (39 inch lbs.) in an X pattern. 4. Four electrical connectors. 5. Negative battery cable. 6. Verify bulb check. 7. Revise tire calibration using Scan Tool. Locations Page 890 Diagram Information and Instructions Oxygen Sensor: Diagram Information and Instructions Abbreviations A/C ....................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................ Air Conditioning CKT .................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................................... Circuit CONN ....................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................. Connector EBCM .................................................. .............................................................................................................................. Electronic Brake Control Module EBTCM ........................................................................................................................................................ Electronic Brake and Traction Control Module ECM ........................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... Engine Control Module HARN .................................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................... Harness I/P .................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................... Instrument Panel IPC .......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................... Instrument Panel Cluster LH ..................................... .............................................................................................................................................................. ........................ Left Hand PCM ........................................................................................................... ................................................................................. Powertrain Control Module RH .......................... .............................................................................................................................................................. ................................. Right Hand TERM ............................................................................................. ...........................................................................................................................Terminal Power Distribution The Power Distribution schematic shows the wiring from the Battery and Generator to the Starter Solenoid, Fuse Block, ignition Switch and Light Switch. The first component after a Fusible Link is also shown. In certain instances, the first component after a Fuse Block fuse and Light Switch is also shown. The Power Distribution schematic refers to Fuse Block Details or the appropriate section schematics. By using these schematics, power distribution wiring can be followed from the Battery and Generator to the first component after a Fusible Link, Fuse or Light Switch. The ability to follow the power distribution wiring to the first component in each circuit is extremely helpful in locating short circuits which cause fusible links and fuses to open. A sample Power Distribution schematic. it shows how voltage is applied from the positive battery terminal to the various circuits on the vehicle. For example, battery voltage is applied to the Starter Solenoid, Fusible Link D, Fuses 1 and 2 in the Fuse Block and the Light Switch in the LH Pod. These fuses are said to be "Hot At All Times", since battery voltage is always applied to them. Notice that battery voltage is also applied to "Fusible Link F" and "Coolant Fan Relay." Page 835 Remove or Disconnect 1. Negative battery cable. 2. Recover refrigerant from the system. 3. Compressor and condenser hose assembly from accumulator. 4. Evaporator and accumulator hose assembly from accumulator. 5. Accumulator clamp bolt. 6. Accumulator from accumulator clamp. Page 477 Labor Time includes administrative time allowance. Page 893 2. Information released on paper and electronic format prior to bulletin release cannot be updated. For the most current and up to date information refer to website. All engines require oil to lubricate and protect the load bearing and internal moving parts from wear including cylinder walls, pistons and piston rings. When a piston moves down its cylinder, a thin film of oil is left on the cylinder wall. During the power stroke, part of this oil layer is consumed in the combustion process. As a result, varying rates of oil consumption are accepted as normal in all engines. Oil Consumption The accepted rate of oil consumption for engines used in Ascender, i-280, i-290, i-350, and i-370 vehicles is 1 quart (0.946 liter) in 2,000 miles (3200 km). The accepted rate of oil consumption for engines used in Trooper (UX), Axiom (UP), VehiCROSS (VX), Rodeo (UE), and Rodeo Sport/Amigo (UA) vehicles is 1 quart (0.473 liter) in 1,000 mi (1600 km). IMPORTANT: Always refer to the Isuzu Service Policies and Procedures Manual for specific details on warranty coverage and policies. This rate only applies to personal use vehicles, under warranty, that are driven in a non-aggressive manner and maintained in accordance with the appropriate maintenance schedule, with less than 36,000 miles (58,000 km), driven at legal speeds in an unloaded (for trucks) condition. IMPORTANT: This rate does not apply to vehicles that are driven in an aggressive manner, at high RPM, high speeds, or in a loaded condition (for trucks). Oil consumption for vehicles driven under these conditions will be more. Many factors can affect a customer's concern with oil consumption. Driving habits and vehicle maintenance vary from owner to owner. Thoroughly evaluate each case before deciding whether the vehicle in question has abnormal engine oil consumption. Gasket and External Leaks Inspect the oil pan and engine covers for leakage due to overtightened, damaged, or out of place gaskets. Inspect oil lines and fittings for signs of leakage. Improper Reading of the Oil Level Indicator (Dipstick) Verify that the dipstick tube is fully seated in the block. When checking the oil level, make sure the dipstick is wiped clean before taking an oil level reading and fully depress the dipstick until the shoulder bottoms out on the dipstick tube. The dipstick should be the proper part number for the engine/vehicle that is being checked. IMPORTANT: Refer to the Owner Manual for checking and adding engine oil. Not Waiting Long Enough After Running Engine to Check Oil Level Some engines require more time than others for the oil to drain back into the crankcase. To assure a sufficient amount of oil has drained back to the crankcase, and an accurate reading can be obtained, the vehicle should be allowed to sit for at least 15 minutes, after the engine has been shut off, before taking an oil level reading. In order to ensure accurate results, the temperature of the oil should be close to the same temperature as the last time the oil level was checked. Improper Oil Fill After an Oil Change Following an oil change, verify that the proper amount and type of oil was put in the engine and that the oil level on the dipstick is not above the full mark or below the add marks. Refer to the Owner's Manual or Service Manual for information on recommended oil quantity, viscosity, and quality. Aggressive Driving, High Speed or High RPM Driving Aggressive driving and/or continuous driving at high speeds/high RPM will increase oil consumption. Because this may not always be an everyday occurrence, it is hard to determine exactly how much the oil economy will be affected. Towing or Heavy Usage Towing a trailer will increase oil consumption and may cause oil consumption to fall below the normal accepted rate referenced in this bulletin for an unloaded vehicle in a personal use application. Large frontal area trailers will further increase the work required from the engine, especially at highway speeds, and thus increases the rate of oil consumption. Page 1073 7. Install the engine front cover. 8. Install the Camshaft Position Sensor. ^ Tighten the camshaft position sensor bolt to 10 Nm (89 inch lbs.). 9. Install the accessory drive belt tensioner. 10. Install the oil pump drive gear. 11. Install the valve lifters. Page 390 This service bulletin contains the revised pages to the referenced Workshop Manual (Book 2). Attach the included pages to the referenced Workshop Page 937 Brake Bleeding: Service and Repair Hydraulic System Bleeding Manual Bleeding NOTE: Bleeding is necessary if air has entered the hydraulic brake system. FOUR WHEEL BLEEDING It may be necessary to bleed the system at all four wheels if a low fluid level allowed air to enter the system, or the brake pipes have been disconnected at the master cylinder or combination valve. If a pipe is disconnected at one wheel, then only bleed that wheel. The time required to bleed the hydraulic system when the master cylinder is removed can be reduced by bleeding the master cylinder before installing it on the vehicle. If the brake pressure modulator valve (BPMV) has been replaced or has air trapped in it, refer to Antilock Brakes. NOTE: Brake fluid will damage electrical connections and painted surfaces. Use shop cloths, suitable containers, and fender covers to prevent brake fluid from contacting these areas. Always reseal and wipe off brake fluid containers to prevent spills. Tool Required: ^ J 28434 Wheel Cylinder Bleeder Wrench NOTE: Relieve the vacuum reserve by applying the brakes several times with the ignition "OFF." 1. Fill the master cylinder reservoirs with DOT 3 motor vehicle brake fluid. ^ Maintain the fluid level during bleeding. 2. If the master cylinder is suspected to have air in the bore, bleed it before any wheel cylinder or caliper. A. Disconnect the forward brake pipe connection at the master cylinder. B. Allow the brake fluid to flow from the connector port. C. Connect the brake pipe but do not tighten. D. Slowly apply the brake pedal and allow the air to bleed from the loose fitting. E. Tighten the fitting before releasing the pedal. F. Wait 15 seconds. G. Repeat this sequence, including the 15 second wait, until all air is purged from the bore. H. After all air has been removed from the forward connection, repeat this procedure for the rear pipe. 3. If the BPMV is replaced or suspected to have air trapped inside, it must be bled next. Refer AntiLock Brake System, Service and Repair. 4. Bleed each wheel in the following sequence: A. Right rear B. Left rear C. Right front D. Left front 5. Attach J 28434 to the wheel cylinder/caliper bleeder valve. ^ Immerse the opposite end of the hose into a container partially filled with clean brake fluid. 6. Slowly apply the brake pedal one time and hold. 7. Loosen the bleeder valve to purge the air from the wheel cylinder/caliper. 8. Tighten the bleeder valve and slowly release the pedal. 9. Wait 15 seconds. 10. Repeat this sequence, including the 15 second wait, until all air is purged from the wheel cylinder/caliper. 11. Tighten the bleeder valve to 7 Nm (62 inch lbs.). 12. Continue Steps 5 through 11 at each wheel until the system is bled. 13. Check the brake pedal for "sponginess" and the brake warning lamp for an indication of unbalanced pressure. Repeat the bleeding procedure to correct either of these conditions. Pressure Bleeding NOTE: Bleeding is necessary if air has entered the hydraulic brake system. FOUR WHEEL BLEEDING It may be necessary to bleed the system at all four wheels if a low fluid level allowed air to enter the system, or the brake pipes have been disconnected at the master cylinder or combination valve. if a pipe is disconnected at one wheel, then only bleed that wheel. The time required to bleed the hydraulic system when the master cylinder is removed can be reduced by bleeding the master cylinder before installing it on the vehicle. If the brake pressure modulator valve (BPMV) has been replaced or has air trapped in it, refer to Antilock Brake System, Service and Repair. NOTE: Brake fluid will damage electrical connections and painted surfaces. Use shop cloths, suitable containers, and fender covers to prevent brake fluid from contacting these areas. Always reseal and wipe off brake fluid containers to prevent spills. A Diaphragm-Type Pressure Bleeder - must be used. It must have a rubber diaphragm between the air supply and brake fluid to prevent air, moisture, oil, and other contaminants from entering the hydraulic system. Page 86 Page 325 Test Light/Digital Multimeter Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. Use a test light to check for voltage. A J 34142-B Test Light is made up of a 12 volt light bulb with a pair of leads attached. After grounding one lead, touch the other lead to various points along the circuit where voltage should be present When the bulb goes on, there is voltage at the point being tested. A Digital Multimeter (DMM) can be used instead of a test light While a test light shows whether or not voltage is present, a DMM indicates how much voltage is present. An increasing number of circuits include solid state control modules. One example is the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Voltages in these circuits should be tested only with a 10-megohm or higher impedance DMM or J 39200 multimeter. Unless directed to within the diagnostics, never use a test light on circuits that contain solid state components, since damage to these components may result. When testing for voltage or continuity at the connection, it is not necessary to separate the two halves of the connector. Unless testing a Weather Pack© or a Metri Pack© connector 150 series and below, always probe the connector from the back. Always check both sides of the connector. An accumulation of dirt and corrosion between contact surfaces is sometimes a cause of electrical problems. Connector Test Adapters Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. Connector Test Adapter Kit (J 35616-A) is available for making tests and measurements at separated connectors. This kit contains an assortment of probes which mate with many of the types of terminals you will see. Avoid using paper clips and other substitutes since they can damage terminals and cause incorrect measurements. Self-Powered Test Light Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. A self-powered test light (J 21008-A) can be used to check for continuity. This tool is made up of a light bulb, battery and two leads. If the leads are touched together, the bulb will go on. A self-powered test light is used only on an unpowered circuit. First remove the fuse which feeds the circuit you're working on. Select two specific points along the circuit through which there should be continuity. Connect one lead of the self-powered test light to each point. If there is continuity, the test light circuit will be completed and the bulb will go on. Never use a self-powered test light on circuits that contain solid state components, since damage to these components may result. Ohmmeter Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. The ohmmeter function on a DMM can be used instead of a self-powered test light. An ohmmeter shows how much resistance there is between two points along a circuit. Low resistance means good continuity. Circuits which include any solid state control modules, such as the PCM, should be tested only with a 10-megohm or higher impedance J 39200 digital multimeter. Before measuring resistance with a DMM, disconnect the vehicle's battery. This will prevent incorrect readings. DMMs apply such a small voltage to measure resistance that the presence of voltages can upset a resistance reading. Diodes and solid state components in a circuit can cause an ohmmeter to give a false reading. To find out if a component is affecting a measurement, take a reading once, reverse the leads and take a second reading. If the readings differ, the solid state component is affecting the measurement. Fused Jumper Wire Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. A J 36169 fused jumper is available with small clamp connectors providing adaptation to most connectors without damage. This fused jumper wire is supplied with a 20 A fuse which may not be suitable for some circuits. Do not use a fuse with a higher rating than the fuse that protects the circuit being tested. NOTE: A fused jumper may not protect solid state components from being damaged. Short Finder Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. J 8681 short finders are available to locate hidden shorts to ground. The short finder creates a pulsing magnetic field in the shorted circuit and shows you the location of the short through body trim or sheet metal. Vacuum Motors and Devices Vacuum Motors operate like electrical solenoids, mechanically pushing or pulling a shaft between two fixed positions. When vacuum is applied, the shaft is pulled in. When no vacuum is applied, the shaft is pushed all the way out by a spring. Specifications Axle Nut: Specifications Front (2wd) Tighten the spindle nut to 16 Nm (12 ft. lbs.), while turning the wheel assembly forward by hand. Page 595 4. Drill out the mounting rivets. 5. Remove the sensor from the vehicle. Important: If the sensor mounting holes or fasteners are damaged to the extent the sensor can no longer be properly mounted, use the following repairs. First Repair 1. Remove the improperly installed rivet. 2. Reattach sensor with new rivet. Supl Rst Front End Discriminating Sensor Page 515 Locations Page 105 Page 803 A. Using the appropriate Removal Tool, place the Removal Tool into the bore of the filter screen (see figure 4). B. Turn the Removal Tool one turn clockwise, or until tight. C. Turn the nut clockwise to remove the filter screen using the appropriate size wrench. ^ 11/16 in wrench for size A filter screen ^ 3/4 in wrench for size B filter screen ^ 7/8 in wrench for size C filter screen Disclaimer Page 147 Air Bag Control Module: Service and Repair REMOVAL PROCEDURE Notice: Do not open the DERM case for any reason. Touching the connector pins, or the soldered components may cause electrostatic discharge damage. Replacement is the only way to repair a malfunctioning DERM. Supl Rst Diagnostic Energy Reserve Module 1. GDisable to Supplemental Restraint System (SRS). Refer to Disabling the SRS. 2. Remove the right hand sound insulator. Refer to Instrument Panel Replacement in Interior Trim. 3. Remove the right hand sill plate. Refer to Sill Plate Replacement in Interior Trim. 4. Remove the right hand cowl kick panel. Refer to Cowl Kick Panel Trim Replacement in Interior Trim. 5. Remove the DERM from the mounting bracket. Supl Rst Diagnostic Energy Reserve Module 6. Disconnect the connector lock. 7. Disconnect the DERM electrical connector from the DERM. INSTALLATION PROCEDURE Page 389 Page 558 Page 47 Daytime Running Lamp Control Unit: Diagrams Daytime Running Lamps Control Module Page 82 Page 842 Power Steering Line/Hose: Service and Repair 2.2L Engine 2.2L Engine W/O Oil Cooler Oil Cooler NOTE: ^ When either a hose is reinstalled or replaced, the following points are essential: ^ Route return and feed hoses in the same position they were in before removal. Removal Camshaft: Service and Repair Removal 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. 2. Raise the vehicle. 3. Drain the cooling system. 4. Remove the exhaust pipe from the exhaust manifold. 5. Lower the vehicle. 6. Evacuate the air conditioning system. Refer to Heating and Air Conditioning. 7. Remove the radiator grille assembly. Refer to Body and Frame. 8. Remove the radiator and A/C condenser (if equipped) as a unit from the vehicle. 9. Remove the accessory drive belt. 10. Remove the cylinder head. 11. Remove the valve lifter retainer. 12. Remove the valve lifters. NOTE: Store the valve lifters in order so that they can be reinstalled in the same order. 13. Rotate the crankshaft until the number 1 piston is at Top Dead Center (TDC) on the compression stroke. Locations Page 698 2. To adjust camber,change shims at both the front and rear of the shaft. Adding an equal number of shims at both the front and rear of the upper control arm will decrease positive camber. A normal shim pack will leave at least two threads of the bolt exposed beyond the nut. The difference between front and rear shim packs must not exceed 10 mm (0.40 inch). If these requirements cannot be met, check for damaged control arms and related parts. Tighten the nut on the thinner shim pack first. This improves the upper control arm shaft-to-frame clamping force and torque retention. Jounce 1. Lift the front bumper for "Z" height and the rear bumper for "D", height of the vehicle up about 38 mm (1.5 inches). 2. Gently remove your hands and let the vehicle settle on its own. 3. Repeat the jounce operation two more times for a total of three times. 4. Measure the "D", or "Z", height. 5. Push the front or rear bumper of the vehicle down about 38 mm (1.5 inches). 6. Gently remove your hands and let the vehicle rise on its own. 7. Repeat the jounce operation two more times for a total of three times. 8. Measure the "D", or "Z", height. 9. Find the average of the high and low measurements. This is the true "D", or "Z", height. NOTE: True trim height is the average of the high and low measurements. Toe-In Tie rod adjuster parts often become rusted in service. If the torque required to remove the nut from the bolt after breakaway exceeds 9 Nm (80 ft. lbs), discard the nuts and bolts. Apply penetrating oil between the clamp and tube and rotate the clamps until they move freely. Install new bolts and nuts with the correct part number. Page 77 Engine Control Module: Technical Service Bulletins PCM - Reprogramming BULLETIN NUMBER: IBOO-S002 ISSUE DATE: JANUARY 2000 GROUP: INFORMATION PCM REPROGRAMMING AFFECTED VEHICLES All Isuzu built units with reprogrammable PCM. It is strongly recommended NOT to reinstall the same software or calibration files when reprogramming a Powertrain Control Module. There is no technical reason that the download files inside the PCM would ever become corrupted after the control module had previously been successfully programmed. With the 2.2L and 4.3L Hombre, a P0601 (Control Module Read Only Memory) Diagnostic Trouble Code could set in memory and the MIL could illuminate if the controller memory became corrupted. After a necessary reprogramming, it is feasible that certain learned values such as fuel trim, IAC learned positions, certain OBD II diagnostic thresholds, and automatic transmission shift adapts for the engine or transmission might revert back to their original unlearned starting points. As a result, the engine and transmission may temporarily operate differently until the values are re-learned. Page 833 2. Compressor and condenser hose to condenser. Tighten Hose to 24 N.m (18 lb ft). 3. New O-ring seal. - Coat O-ring seal with 525 viscosity refrigerant oil. 4. Compressor and condenser hose to accumulator. Tighten Hose to 41 N.m (30 lb ft). 5. Sealing washers. Page 759 Spark Plug: Application and ID Plug Type ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................... (AC) 41-928 Page 902 Power Steering Fluid: Fluid Type Specifications LUBRICANTS Fluid Type ............................................................................................................................................ ............................. Hydraulic Power Steering Fluid Page 22 Cruise Control Module (2.2L W/ M/T) Page 750 Ignition Cable: Testing and Inspection Ignition Cable Test VISUAL INSPECTION 1. Inspect the routing of the wires. Improper routing can cause crossfiring. 2. Inspect each wire for any signs of cracks or splits in the wire. 3. Inspect each boot for signs of tears, piercing, arc through, or carbon tracking. If the boot needs to be replaced, twist it a half-turn in either direction to break the seal before pulling on the boot to remove the wire. SPARK PLUG WIRE RESISTANCE TEST 1. Disconnect both ends of each wire. Make sure the wire terminals are clean. 2. Set ohmmeter on the high scale and connect it to each end of the wire being tested. Twist the wire gently while watching ohmmeter. 3. If ohmmeter reads above 30,000 ohms (no matter how long the wire is), or fluctuates from infinity any value, replace the wire. 4. If the resistance of any wire is not within the following ranges, replace the wire being tested. - 0 to 381 mm (0 to 15 in.) wire - 3,000 to 10,000 ohms. - 381 mm to 635 mm (15 in. to 25 in.) wire - 4,000 to 15,000 ohms. - 635 mm to 889 mm (25 in. to 35 in.) wire - 6,000 to 20,000 ohms. - Longer wire - should measure about 5,000 to 10,000 ohms per foot. Page 920 Refrigerant Line Installation - Use the proper wrenches when making connections on O-ring seal fittings. Using improper wrenches may damage the connection. The opposing fitting should always be backed up with a wrench to prevent distortion of connecting lines or components. When connecting the flexible hose connections, it is important that the swaged fitting and the flare nut, as well as the coupling to which it is attached, be held at the same time using three different wrenches to prevent turning the fitting and damaging the seat. Tighten tubing connections to the specified torque. Refer to Fastener Tightening Specifications. Page 834 6. Compressor and condenser hose to compressor. 7. Compressor and condenser hose washer and bolt. Tighten Bolt to 33 N.m (24 lb ft). 8. Compressor and condenser hose to the evaporator (2.2L only). 9. Negative battery cable. 10. Refrigerant to the system. - Check the system for leaks. Evaporator and Accumulator Hose Evaporator and Accumulator Hose Assembly Page 454 Page 1151 7. Position the J 24420-B. 8. Turn the center puller screw clockwise. This will remove the hub from the crankshaft. 9. Inspect crankshaft hub for damage. Replace if necessary. 10. Inspect the crankshaft key for damage. Replace it if necessary. INSTALLATION 1. Coat the engine front cover seal contact area with engine oil. Page 690 Alignment: Description and Operation Caster, Camber, and Toe-In PROPER ALIGNMENT Front wheel alignment refers to the angular relationship between the suspension attaching parts, the wheels, and the ground. Proper alignment is considered essential for efficient steering, good directional stability, and to prevent abnormal tire wear. The most important factors of front wheel alignment are caster, camber and toe-in. CASTER Caster is the tilting of the front steering axis either forward or backward from the (1) vertical. It is measured in degrees. A rearward tilt is positive and a forward tilt is negative (Figure 1) On the short and long arm type suspension you cannot see a caster angle without a special instrument. However if you look straight down from the top of the upper control arm to the ground, the ball joints do not line up (fore and aft) when a caster angle other than 0 degrees is present. With a positive angle, the lower ball joint would be slightly ahead (toward the front of the vehicle) of the upper ball joint center line. Incorrect caster may result from damaged control arms and other related front suspension parts. CAMBER Camber is the inward or outward tilting of the front wheel from the vertical. When the wheels tilt outward at the top, the camber is positive. When the wheels tilt inward at the top, the camber is negative. The amount of tilt measured in degrees from the vertical is called the (1) camber angle. If the camber is extreme or unequal between the wheels, improper steering and excessive tire wear will result. Negative camber causes wear on the inboard side of the tire, while positive camber causes wear to the outboard side. TOE-IN Linear sum toe-in exists when the distance between the front wheels is less at the front of the axle than at the rear of the axle. Angular toe-in is the Page 350 Fuel Tank Pressure Sensor: Service and Repair Removal Procedure 1. Raise the vehicle. 2. Remove the fuel tank. Refer to Fuel Tank Replacement. 3. Remove the fuel tank pressure sensor electrical connector. 4. Remove the fuel tank pressure sensor. Installation Procedure 1. Install the fuel tank pressure sensor. 2. Install the fuel tank pressure sensor electrical connector. 3. Install the fuel tank. Refer to Fuel Tank Replacement. 4. Lower the vehicle. 5. Refill the fuel tank. 6. Connect the negative battery cable. Refer to Battery Disconnect Caution. 7. Inspect for fuel leaks through the following steps: 7.1. Turn the ignition switch to the ON position for two seconds 7.2. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position for ten seconds. 7.3. Turn the ignition switch to the ON position 7.4. Check for fuel leaks. Page 365 This test checks for voltage being lost along a wire, or through a connection or switch. 1. Connect the positive lead of a DMM to the end of the wire (or to one side of the connection or switch) which is closer to the Battery. 2. Connect the negative lead to the other end of the wire (or the other side of the connection or switch). 3. Operate the circuit. 4. The DMM will show the difference in voltage between the two points. Testing For Voltage 1. Connect one lead of a test light to a known good ground. When using a DMM, be sure the voltmeter's negative lead is connected to ground. 2. Connect the other lead of the test light or voltmeter to a selected test point (connector or terminal). 3. If the test light illuminates, there is voltage present. When using a DMM, note the voltage reading. Testing For Continuity 1. Remove the fuse to the circuit involved. Page 847 Radiator Hose: Service and Repair REMOVAL 1. Remove the coolant from the radiator so that the level is below the hoses being removed. 2. Loosen the radiator hose clamps. 3. Disconnect the radiator hoses from the radiator. 4. Disconnect the upper radiator inlet hose from the coolant outlet. 5. Disconnect the lower radiator Outlet hose from coolant pump. NOTE: This engine uses a spring-type (constant tensioner) clamp at the radiator hose connections. Install hoses on dry, unpainted surfaces in order to ensure proper sealing. INSTALLATION 1. Place the radiator hose clamps loosely, on the ends of the hoses. 2. Connect the radiator hoses to the radiator. 3. Connect the radiator outlet hose to the coolant pump. Connect the radiator inlet hose to the coolant outlet. 4. If service type radiator hose clamps are used: ^ Tighten the radiator hose clamps to 2.5 Nm (22 inch lbs.). 5. Refill the cooling system to the proper level. 6. Check the cooling system for leaks. Page 361 Important: ^ The "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) mode is NOT the runout of time allowed to perform a specific procedure. It is the amount of time used to record each snapshot of information used for calculating "AVG" when in the "MIN MAX" mode. Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections The previous diagnostic procedure was written to detect intermittents using the DMM set to voltage. Whether using the current, voltage, or resistance setting to detect intermittents, it is necessary to properly connect the DMM to the circuit. Following are examples of the various methods of connecting the DMM to the circuit to be checked: ^ Backprobe both ends of the connector and either hold the leads in place while manipulating the connector or tape the leads to the harness for continuous monitoring while performing other operations or test driving. (Do not backprobe "Weather Pack (R)" type connectors.) ^ Disconnect the harness at both ends of the suspect circuit where it connects either to a component or to other harnesses. ^ Use J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit to connect the DMM to the circuit. ^ If the system being diagnosed has a specified pinout or breakout box, it may be used to simplify connecting the DMM to the circuit or for checking multiple circuits quickly. Intermittent and Poor Connections Most intermittence are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring, although occasionally a sticking relay or solenoid can be a problem. Some items to check are: ^ Poor mating of connector halves, or terminals not fully seated in the connector body (backed out). ^ Dirt or corrosion on the terminals. The terminals must be clean and free of any foreign material which could impede proper terminal contact. ^ Damaged connector body, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt, as well as not maintaining proper terminal orientation with the component or mating connector. ^ Improperly formed or damaged terminals. All connector terminals in problem circuits should be checked carefully to ensure good contact tension. Use a corresponding mating terminal to check for proper tension. ^ The J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit must be used whenever a diagnostic procedure requests checking or probing a terminal. Using the adapter will ensure that no damage to the terminal will occur, as well as giving an idea of whether contact tension is sufficient. ^ Poor terminal to wire connection. Some conditions which fall under this description are poor crimps, poor solder joints, crimping over wire insulation rather than the wire itself, corrosion in the wire to terminal contact area, etc. ^ Wire insulation which is rubbed through, causing an intermittent short as the bare area touches other wiring or parts of the vehicle. ^ Wiring broken inside the insulation. This condition could cause a continuity check to show a good circuit, but if only one or two strands of a multi-strand type wire are intact, resistance could be far too high. To avoid any of the above problems when making wiring or terminal repairs, always follow the instructions for wiring and terminal repair. Schematic Symbols Page 337 Fuel Tank Pressure Sensor: Diagnostic Aids Additional Information NOTE: Turn OFF power to the test circuit before attempting in-circuit resistance measurements to prevent false readings or damage to the DMM. Do not use the DMM to measure resistance through a solid state module. Continuity tests that work well for detecting intermittent shorts to ground can be performed by setting the DMM to "ohms," then pressing the "PEAK MIN MAX" button. An audible tone will be heard whenever the DMM detects continuity for at least 1 millisecond. The J 39200 instruction Manual is a good source of information and should be read thoroughly upon receipt of the DMM as well as kept on hand for reference during new procedures. Basic Knowledge Required Without a basic knowledge of electricity, it will be difficult to use the diagnostic procedures contained in this section. You should understand the basic theory of electricity and know the meaning of voltage, current (amps) and resistance (Ohms). You should understand what happens in a circuit with an open or a shorted wire. You should be able to read and understand a wiring diagram. The following four-step troubleshooting procedure is recommended: Step 1: Check the Problem Perform a System Check to determine a symptom. Don't waste time fixing part of the problem! Do not begin disassembly or testing until you have narrowed down the possible causes. Step 2: Read the Electrical Schematic Study the schematic. Read the Circuit Operation text if you do not understand how the circuit should work. Check circuits that share wiring with the problem circuit (Shared circuits are shown on Power Distribution, Ground Distribution, Fuse Block Details, and Light Switch Details pages.) Try to operate the shared circuits. If the shared circuits work, then the shared wiring is OK. The cause must be within the wiring used only by the problem circuit. If several circuits fail at the same time, chances are the power (fuse) or ground circuit is faulty. Step 3: Find the Fault and Repair ^ Narrow down the possible causes. ^ Use the Troubleshooting Hints. ^ Make the necessary measurements or checks as given in the System Diagnosis. ^ Before replacing a component, check power, signal and ground wires at the component harness connector. If the checks and connections are OK, the most probable cause is component failure. Step 4: Test the Repair Repeat the System Check to verify that the fault has been corrected and that no other faults were induced during the repair. Example: A customer brings in a vehicle and says that the High beams do not work. Step 1: Perform a System Check on the Headlamp Circuit You may discover that both Low beams operate. In "High," you may notice that the High Beam Indicator comes on. but neither High beam operates. Page 434 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to one end of the part of the circuit you wish to test. 3. Connect the other lead to the other end of the circuit. 4. If the self-powered test light glows, there is continuity. When using an ohmmeter, low or no resistance means good continuity. With A Test Light or Digital Multimeter (DMM) 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the load. 2. Connect a test light or voltmeter across the fuse terminals (be sure that the fuse is powered). 3. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the test light or DMM. 4. when the test light glows, or the DMM registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. With A Self-Powered Test Light or Ohmmeter 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the Battery and load. 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to the fuse terminal on the load side. 3. Connect the other lead to a known good ground. 4. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the self-powered test light or ohmmeter. 5. When the self-powered test light glows, or the ohmmeter registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. Fuses Powering Several Loads 1. Find the schematic in "Fuse Block Details," for the fuse that has blown. 2. Open the first connector or switch leading from the fuse to each load. 3. Replace the fuse. ^ If the fuse blows, the short is in the wiring leading to the first connector or switch. Use a test light or DMM. ^ If fuse does not blow, refer to next step. 4. Close each connector or switch until the fuse blows in order to find which circuit has the short. Connect test light or DMM at the connector to the suspect circuit (disconnected) rather than at the fuse terminals. Page 414 Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor: Connector Views Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (2.2L) Electrical Test Equipment Air Bag Control Module: Service Precautions Electrical Test Equipment When using electrical test equipment, insert the probe of the tester into the wire side of the connector. Do not insert the probe of the tester into the terminal side of the connector, and do not tamper with the connector. Inserting the probe into the terminal side of the connector, and tampering the connector could cause malfunction of the SRS system or an error in inspection. Use a probe with the correct tip. Do not insert the probe forcibly. Use specified service connectors in troubleshooting. Using tools which are not specified standard design could cause an error in inspection due to poor metal-to-metal contact. Page 183 Wheel Speed Sensor: Adjustments The Four Wheel Antilock (4WAL) Electronic Brake Control Module (EBCM) is capable of accepting wheel speed signals from several different size tire and wheel combinations. All vehicles are preprogrammed from the factory with the proper front tire size calibration. When ever the 4WAL EBCM is replaced, it is necessary to reset the tire size calibration. Once programmed, this calibration will remain even if the battery is disconnected or the EBCM is removed from the vehicle. Page 656 Labor Time includes administrative time allowance. A/C - Suction Line Screen Kit Recommendations Hose/Line HVAC: Technical Service Bulletins A/C - Suction Line Screen Kit Recommendations TSB IB04-12-S003 J 44551 A/C Suction Screen Kit Repair Recommendations And Procedures After Compressor Failures Issue Date: March, 2004 Affected Vehicles 1996-2000 Isuzu Hombre (TH) and 2003-2004 Isuzu Ascender (US). Service Information After a compressor failure, it is extremely important to eliminate and/or contain the debris that causes repeat repairs. The debris generated from a compressor failure is discharged into the compressor suction line, the discharge line, the condenser and the liquid line. The use of the J 44551 Suction Screen Kit DOES NOT replace the need for liquid line filters as described in the vehicle Service Manual. Liquid line filters should be used whenever possible (after a catastrophic compressor failure) to protect the expansion device (orifice tube or TXV) from debris. Analysis of failed replacement compressors show the debris discharged into the INLET side of the compressor (suction line) is often pulled into the replacement compressor. It is important to keep this debris out of the new compressor to avoid repeat compressor failure. The J 44551 Suction Screen Kit is designed to help protect the NEW (replacement) compressor from ingesting debris that was sent into the SUCTION side of the system during a compressor failure. The J 44551 kit supplies your dealership with the right tools and supplies to cover the Delphi HD6, HU6 and HT6 compressors for most Isuzu applications. Delphi V5 and V7 compressors already have this screen installed in the suction port of the compressor and do not need an additional screen installed. Refer to the Service Manual for identification of Delphi compressors. Service Procedure Tools Required J 44551 Suction Screen Kit The J 44551 Suction Screen Kit contains three different screen sizes. It is important to select the correct size screen that will press fit into the suction port of the compressor hose assembly. The screen should not be installed loose inside the hose assembly. Installation Procedure 1. Evacuate the air conditioning system completely using the applicable recovery equipment. 2. Remove the bolt that attaches the manifold of the muffler assembly hose to the air conditioning compressor. 3. Use the Suction Port Sizing Tool in order to determine the appropriate size filter screen (see figure 1). Page 382 Page 459 Double Diaphragm Motors can be operated by vacuum in two directions. When there is no vacuum, the motor is in the center "AT REST" position. Some Vacuum Motors such as the Servo Motor in the Cruise Control can position the actuating arm at any position between fully extended and fully retracted. The servo is operated by a control valve that applies varying amounts of vacuum to the motor. The higher the vacuum level, the greater the retraction of the motor arm. Servo Motors work like the two position motors; the only difference is in the way the vacuum is applied. Servo Motors are generally larger and provide a calibrated control. Page 488 Important: ^ The "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) mode is NOT the runout of time allowed to perform a specific procedure. It is the amount of time used to record each snapshot of information used for calculating "AVG" when in the "MIN MAX" mode. Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections The previous diagnostic procedure was written to detect intermittents using the DMM set to voltage. Whether using the current, voltage, or resistance setting to detect intermittents, it is necessary to properly connect the DMM to the circuit. Following are examples of the various methods of connecting the DMM to the circuit to be checked: ^ Backprobe both ends of the connector and either hold the leads in place while manipulating the connector or tape the leads to the harness for continuous monitoring while performing other operations or test driving. (Do not backprobe "Weather Pack (R)" type connectors.) ^ Disconnect the harness at both ends of the suspect circuit where it connects either to a component or to other harnesses. ^ Use J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit to connect the DMM to the circuit. ^ If the system being diagnosed has a specified pinout or breakout box, it may be used to simplify connecting the DMM to the circuit or for checking multiple circuits quickly. Intermittent and Poor Connections Most intermittence are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring, although occasionally a sticking relay or solenoid can be a problem. Some items to check are: ^ Poor mating of connector halves, or terminals not fully seated in the connector body (backed out). ^ Dirt or corrosion on the terminals. The terminals must be clean and free of any foreign material which could impede proper terminal contact. ^ Damaged connector body, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt, as well as not maintaining proper terminal orientation with the component or mating connector. ^ Improperly formed or damaged terminals. All connector terminals in problem circuits should be checked carefully to ensure good contact tension. Use a corresponding mating terminal to check for proper tension. ^ The J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit must be used whenever a diagnostic procedure requests checking or probing a terminal. Using the adapter will ensure that no damage to the terminal will occur, as well as giving an idea of whether contact tension is sufficient. ^ Poor terminal to wire connection. Some conditions which fall under this description are poor crimps, poor solder joints, crimping over wire insulation rather than the wire itself, corrosion in the wire to terminal contact area, etc. ^ Wire insulation which is rubbed through, causing an intermittent short as the bare area touches other wiring or parts of the vehicle. ^ Wiring broken inside the insulation. This condition could cause a continuity check to show a good circuit, but if only one or two strands of a multi-strand type wire are intact, resistance could be far too high. To avoid any of the above problems when making wiring or terminal repairs, always follow the instructions for wiring and terminal repair. Schematic Symbols Page 894 Crankcase Ventilation System Verify that the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system is operating properly. Blockages, restrictions, or damage to the PCV system can result in increased oil use. Oil Dilution (Fuel and Water) On vehicles that are usually driven short distances, less than 5 miles (8 km), especially in colder weather, unburned fuel and condensation generated from cold engine operation may not get hot enough to evaporate out of the oil. When this occurs, the dipstick may indicate that the oil level is over-full. Subsequent driving on a trip of sufficient length to enable normal engine operating temperature for 30 minutes or more, in order to vaporize excess moisture and fuel, may give the customer the impression of excessive oil consumption. Engine Temperature If an engine is run at overheated temperatures (see Owner's Manual or Service Manual) for more than brief periods, oil will oxidize at a faster than normal rate. In addition, gaskets may distort, piston rings may stick, and excessive wear may result. Verify that all cooling system components are in proper working order. Engine Wear Piston scuffing, excessive piston-to-wall clearance, tapered or out of round cylinders, worn, damaged or improperly installed valve guides, seals and piston rings will all cause an increase in oil consumption. Disclaimer Page 393 Knock Sensor: Diagrams Knock Sensor (2.2L) Page 27 BLOWER MOTOR RELAY Locations Locations Page 220 Clutch Switch: Diagrams Clutch Pedal Position And Cruise Control Shutoff Switch Page 671 Power Window Switch: Diagrams Door Lock And Side Window Switch, LH, Connector C1 Capacity Specifications Coolant: Capacity Specifications Specified amount ................................................................................................................................. ............................................... 11.0 Liters (11.5 Qts.) Page 343 Aftermarket Accessories Do not connect aftermarket accessories into SIR circuits. All such circuits are indicated on circuit diagrams with the SIR symbol. Do not connect aftermarket accessories into OBD II circuits. All such circuits are indicated on circuit diagrams with the OBD II symbol. Always check for aftermarket accessories (non-OEM) as the first step in diagnosing electrical problems. If the vehicle is so equipped, disconnect the system to verify that these add-on accessories are not the cause of the problems. Some possible causes of vehicle problems related to aftermarket accessories include: 1. Power feeds connected to points other than the Battery. 2. Antenna location. 3. Transceiver wiring located too close to vehicle electronic modules or wiring. 4. Poor shielding or poor connectors on antenna feed line. Check for recent service bulletins detailing installation guidelines for aftermarket accessories. Probing After probing, when reconnecting connectors or replacing terminals, always be sure to reinstall Connector Position Assurance (CPA) and Terminal Position Assurance (TPA). Front Probe When front probing of connectors is required, always use a mating terminal adapter from Connector Test Adapter Kit (J 35616-A). The use of proper adapters will ensure that proper terminal contact integrity is maintained. Backprobe Only backprobe connector terminals when specifically called for in diagnostic procedures. Since backprobing can be a source of damage to connector terminals, extra care must be taken to avoid deforming the terminal, either by forcing the test probe too far into the cavity or by using too large a test probe. After backprobing any connector, always check for terminal damage. If terminal damage is suspected, check for proper terminal contact. Testing For Voltage Drop Page 450 Step 2: Read the Headlamps Electrical Schematic. This is the step that will save time and labor. Remember, it is essential to understand how a circuit should work before trying to figure out why it doesn't. After you understand how the circuit should operate, read the schematic again, this time keeping in mind what you have learned by operating the circuit. Since both Low beams work, you know that the Headlamp Switch, the YEL wire, the Low contacts of the Headlamp Dimmer Switch, terminal "1E" of C100, the TAN wires, and grounds G105 and G109 are all good. Furthermore, since you saw that the High Beam Indicator came on when the Headlamp Dimmer Switch was moved to "High," you know that the High contacts of the Headlamp Dimmer Switch and the LT GRN wire between the Headlamp Dimmer Switch and C100 are good. At this point, you could test for voltage at the RH Headlamp with the Headlamp Dimmer Switch in "High." However, it is extremely unlikely that the High beam filaments have burned out in both headlamps, or that both headlamp connections are bad. The cause must be a bad connection at C100, or a break in the LT GRN wire between C100 and the RH Headlamp. You have quickly narrowed the possible causes down to one specific area, and have done absolutely no work on the vehicle itself. Step 3: Find the Fault and Repair it Using the Component Location Table and the corresponding figure, you can quickly find C100 and the LT GRN wire, locate the exact trouble point and make the repair. Step 4: Check the Repair by Performing a System Check on the Head lamps Circuit This, of course, means making sure that both High beams, both Low beams, and the High Beam Indicator are all working. Now suppose that the symptoms were different. You may have operated the Headlamps and found that the Low beams were working, but neither the High beams nor the High Beam Indicator were working. Looking at the schematic, you might conclude that it is unlikely that both High beam filaments and the High Beam Indicator have all burned out at once. The cause is probably the Headlamp Dimmer Switch or its connector. Checking Terminal Contact When diagnosing an electrical system that utilizes Metri-Pack 150/280/480/630 series terminals, it is important to check terminal contact between a connector and component, or between in-line connectors, before replacing a suspect component. Refer to J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit or J 38125-4 Instruction Manual for terminal identification. Frequently, diagnostics lead to a step that reads: "Check for poor connection." Mating terminals must be inspected to assure good terminal contact. A poor connection between the male and female terminal at a connector may be the result of contamination or deformation. Contamination is caused by the connector halves being improperly connected, a missing or damaged connector seal, or damage to the connector itself, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt. Contamination, usually in underhood or underbody connectors, leads to terminal corrosion, causing an open circuit or intermittently open circuit. Page 404 Step 2: Read the Headlamps Electrical Schematic. This is the step that will save time and labor. Remember, it is essential to understand how a circuit should work before trying to figure out why it doesn't. After you understand how the circuit should operate, read the schematic again, this time keeping in mind what you have learned by operating the circuit. Since both Low beams work, you know that the Headlamp Switch, the YEL wire, the Low contacts of the Headlamp Dimmer Switch, terminal "1E" of C100, the TAN wires, and grounds G105 and G109 are all good. Furthermore, since you saw that the High Beam Indicator came on when the Headlamp Dimmer Switch was moved to "High," you know that the High contacts of the Headlamp Dimmer Switch and the LT GRN wire between the Headlamp Dimmer Switch and C100 are good. At this point, you could test for voltage at the RH Headlamp with the Headlamp Dimmer Switch in "High." However, it is extremely unlikely that the High beam filaments have burned out in both headlamps, or that both headlamp connections are bad. The cause must be a bad connection at C100, or a break in the LT GRN wire between C100 and the RH Headlamp. You have quickly narrowed the possible causes down to one specific area, and have done absolutely no work on the vehicle itself. Step 3: Find the Fault and Repair it Using the Component Location Table and the corresponding figure, you can quickly find C100 and the LT GRN wire, locate the exact trouble point and make the repair. Step 4: Check the Repair by Performing a System Check on the Head lamps Circuit This, of course, means making sure that both High beams, both Low beams, and the High Beam Indicator are all working. Now suppose that the symptoms were different. You may have operated the Headlamps and found that the Low beams were working, but neither the High beams nor the High Beam Indicator were working. Looking at the schematic, you might conclude that it is unlikely that both High beam filaments and the High Beam Indicator have all burned out at once. The cause is probably the Headlamp Dimmer Switch or its connector. Checking Terminal Contact When diagnosing an electrical system that utilizes Metri-Pack 150/280/480/630 series terminals, it is important to check terminal contact between a connector and component, or between in-line connectors, before replacing a suspect component. Refer to J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit or J 38125-4 Instruction Manual for terminal identification. Frequently, diagnostics lead to a step that reads: "Check for poor connection." Mating terminals must be inspected to assure good terminal contact. A poor connection between the male and female terminal at a connector may be the result of contamination or deformation. Contamination is caused by the connector halves being improperly connected, a missing or damaged connector seal, or damage to the connector itself, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt. Contamination, usually in underhood or underbody connectors, leads to terminal corrosion, causing an open circuit or intermittently open circuit. Page 103 Page 456 This test checks for voltage being lost along a wire, or through a connection or switch. 1. Connect the positive lead of a DMM to the end of the wire (or to one side of the connection or switch) which is closer to the Battery. 2. Connect the negative lead to the other end of the wire (or the other side of the connection or switch). 3. Operate the circuit. 4. The DMM will show the difference in voltage between the two points. Testing For Voltage 1. Connect one lead of a test light to a known good ground. When using a DMM, be sure the voltmeter's negative lead is connected to ground. 2. Connect the other lead of the test light or voltmeter to a selected test point (connector or terminal). 3. If the test light illuminates, there is voltage present. When using a DMM, note the voltage reading. Testing For Continuity 1. Remove the fuse to the circuit involved. Page 519 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to one end of the part of the circuit you wish to test. 3. Connect the other lead to the other end of the circuit. 4. If the self-powered test light glows, there is continuity. When using an ohmmeter, low or no resistance means good continuity. With A Test Light or Digital Multimeter (DMM) 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the load. 2. Connect a test light or voltmeter across the fuse terminals (be sure that the fuse is powered). 3. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the test light or DMM. 4. when the test light glows, or the DMM registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. With A Self-Powered Test Light or Ohmmeter 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the Battery and load. 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to the fuse terminal on the load side. 3. Connect the other lead to a known good ground. 4. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the self-powered test light or ohmmeter. 5. When the self-powered test light glows, or the ohmmeter registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. Fuses Powering Several Loads 1. Find the schematic in "Fuse Block Details," for the fuse that has blown. 2. Open the first connector or switch leading from the fuse to each load. 3. Replace the fuse. ^ If the fuse blows, the short is in the wiring leading to the first connector or switch. Use a test light or DMM. ^ If fuse does not blow, refer to next step. 4. Close each connector or switch until the fuse blows in order to find which circuit has the short. Connect test light or DMM at the connector to the suspect circuit (disconnected) rather than at the fuse terminals. Page 710 Diagnostic Chart Service Specifications Crankshaft Main Bearing: Specifications Service Specifications ENGINE MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS Part 1 Of 3 Page 339 Deformation is caused by probing the mating side of a connector terminal without the proper adapter, improperly joining the connector halves or repeatedly separating and joining the connector halves. Deformation, usually to the female terminal contact tang, can result in poor terminal contact, causing an open or intermittently open circuit. Follow the procedure below to check terminal contact. 1. Separate the connector halves. 2. Inspect the connector halves for contamination. Contamination will result in a white or green build-up within the connector body or between terminals, causing high terminal resistance, intermittent contact, or an open circuit. An underhood or underbody connector that shows signs of contamination should be replaced in its entirety: terminals, seals, and connector body. 3. Using an equivalent male terminal from the J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit, check the retention force of the female terminal in question by inserting and removing the male terminal to the female terminal in the connector body. Good terminal contact will require a certain amount of force to separate the terminals. 4. Using an equivalent female terminal from the J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit, compare the retention force of this terminal to the female terminal in question by joining and separating the male terminal to the good female terminal, and then joining and separating the male terminal to the female terminal in question. If the retention force is significantly different between the two female terminals, replace the female terminal in question. If a visual (physical) check does not reveal the cause of the problem, the vehicle may be able to be driven with a DMM connected to the suspected circuit An abnormal voltage reading when the problem occurs indicates the problem may be in that circuit. Detecting Electrical Intermittents Use the following procedure to detect intermittent terminal contact or a broken wire with an intermittent connection inside the insulation. The J 39200 Digital Multimeter (DMM) has the ability to monitor current, resistance, or voltage while recording the minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) values measured. The DMM can also be set to display the average (AVG) value measured. When diagnosing circuits that have voltage applied, use the voltage setting to monitor a connector (or length of a circuit) which is suspected of having an intermittent connection but is currently operating normally. 1. Connect the J 39200 Digital Multimeter to both sides of a suspect connector (still connected) or from one end of a suspect circuit to the other. This will continuously monitor the terminal contacts or length of wire being checked. Refer to "Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections" in this section for examples of the various methods for connecting the DMM to the circuit 2. Set the DMM for voltage. Since the "MIN MAX" mode does not use auto ranging, manually select the voltage range necessary before proceeding. 3. Press the "MIN MAX" button. The DMM should read "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) and emit a 1/4 second beep. The DMM is now ready to record and will generate an audible tone for any change in voltage. At this point, you may wish to press the "PEAK MIN MAX" button, which will record any voltage variations that occur for at least 1 millisecond. 4. Try to simulate the condition that is potentially causing an intermittent connection, either by wiggling connections or wiring, test driving or performing other operations. If an open or resistance is created, a voltage will be present and the DMM will emit a tone for as long as the open or resistance exists. Any change in voltage will cause the DMM to emit a tone for no less than 1/4 second. (Listening for a tone while manipulating wiring is very helpful for narrowing down an intermittent connection.) Use the MIN and MAX values when the DMM is out of sight or sound range, in noisy areas or for test driving when it may not be possible to monitor the DMM. To check the MIN and MAX recorded voltages press "MIN MAX" once for MAX and twice for MIN. A variation between MIN and MAX recorded voltages (unless nearly 0 volts) suggests an intermittent open or that resistance exists and should be repaired as necessary. Page 559 Page 1097 large end. This "bump" should face away from the arrow on the piston crown. NOTE It is necessary to use tool J 24086-C or a fixture that does not put pressure against the piston. All press loads must be supported by the connecting rod . Any load on the piston or piston skirt will distort the piston. 6. Inspect the piston rod bearings for wear using service procedures outlined in the Workshop Manual. If necessary, replace with the correct size as indicated by the measurements taken. Three sizes are available from AIPDN. 7. Scrub the cylinder bore and replacement pistons with soapy water to remove any foreign material. Thoroughly dry the parts, install new piston rings (Figure 1), and coat the cylinder bore, piston skirt, and piston rings, with engine oil. 8. Install all four (4) pistons or piston and rod assemblies using the service procedures outlined in the Workshop Manual. IMPORTANT All four pistons must be replaced. PARTS INFORMATION WARRANTY CLAIM INFORMATION Page 520 Test Light/Digital Multimeter Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. Use a test light to check for voltage. A J 34142-B Test Light is made up of a 12 volt light bulb with a pair of leads attached. After grounding one lead, touch the other lead to various points along the circuit where voltage should be present When the bulb goes on, there is voltage at the point being tested. A Digital Multimeter (DMM) can be used instead of a test light While a test light shows whether or not voltage is present, a DMM indicates how much voltage is present. An increasing number of circuits include solid state control modules. One example is the Powertrain Control Module (PCM). Voltages in these circuits should be tested only with a 10-megohm or higher impedance DMM or J 39200 multimeter. Unless directed to within the diagnostics, never use a test light on circuits that contain solid state components, since damage to these components may result. When testing for voltage or continuity at the connection, it is not necessary to separate the two halves of the connector. Unless testing a Weather Pack© or a Metri Pack© connector 150 series and below, always probe the connector from the back. Always check both sides of the connector. An accumulation of dirt and corrosion between contact surfaces is sometimes a cause of electrical problems. Connector Test Adapters Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. Connector Test Adapter Kit (J 35616-A) is available for making tests and measurements at separated connectors. This kit contains an assortment of probes which mate with many of the types of terminals you will see. Avoid using paper clips and other substitutes since they can damage terminals and cause incorrect measurements. Self-Powered Test Light Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. A self-powered test light (J 21008-A) can be used to check for continuity. This tool is made up of a light bulb, battery and two leads. If the leads are touched together, the bulb will go on. A self-powered test light is used only on an unpowered circuit. First remove the fuse which feeds the circuit you're working on. Select two specific points along the circuit through which there should be continuity. Connect one lead of the self-powered test light to each point. If there is continuity, the test light circuit will be completed and the bulb will go on. Never use a self-powered test light on circuits that contain solid state components, since damage to these components may result. Ohmmeter Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. The ohmmeter function on a DMM can be used instead of a self-powered test light. An ohmmeter shows how much resistance there is between two points along a circuit. Low resistance means good continuity. Circuits which include any solid state control modules, such as the PCM, should be tested only with a 10-megohm or higher impedance J 39200 digital multimeter. Before measuring resistance with a DMM, disconnect the vehicle's battery. This will prevent incorrect readings. DMMs apply such a small voltage to measure resistance that the presence of voltages can upset a resistance reading. Diodes and solid state components in a circuit can cause an ohmmeter to give a false reading. To find out if a component is affecting a measurement, take a reading once, reverse the leads and take a second reading. If the readings differ, the solid state component is affecting the measurement. Fused Jumper Wire Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. A J 36169 fused jumper is available with small clamp connectors providing adaptation to most connectors without damage. This fused jumper wire is supplied with a 20 A fuse which may not be suitable for some circuits. Do not use a fuse with a higher rating than the fuse that protects the circuit being tested. NOTE: A fused jumper may not protect solid state components from being damaged. Short Finder Electrical troubleshooting requires the use of common electrical test equipment. J 8681 short finders are available to locate hidden shorts to ground. The short finder creates a pulsing magnetic field in the shorted circuit and shows you the location of the short through body trim or sheet metal. Vacuum Motors and Devices Vacuum Motors operate like electrical solenoids, mechanically pushing or pulling a shaft between two fixed positions. When vacuum is applied, the shaft is pulled in. When no vacuum is applied, the shaft is pushed all the way out by a spring. Page 319 Important: ^ The "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) mode is NOT the runout of time allowed to perform a specific procedure. It is the amount of time used to record each snapshot of information used for calculating "AVG" when in the "MIN MAX" mode. Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections The previous diagnostic procedure was written to detect intermittents using the DMM set to voltage. Whether using the current, voltage, or resistance setting to detect intermittents, it is necessary to properly connect the DMM to the circuit. Following are examples of the various methods of connecting the DMM to the circuit to be checked: ^ Backprobe both ends of the connector and either hold the leads in place while manipulating the connector or tape the leads to the harness for continuous monitoring while performing other operations or test driving. (Do not backprobe "Weather Pack (R)" type connectors.) ^ Disconnect the harness at both ends of the suspect circuit where it connects either to a component or to other harnesses. ^ Use J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit to connect the DMM to the circuit. ^ If the system being diagnosed has a specified pinout or breakout box, it may be used to simplify connecting the DMM to the circuit or for checking multiple circuits quickly. Intermittent and Poor Connections Most intermittence are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring, although occasionally a sticking relay or solenoid can be a problem. Some items to check are: ^ Poor mating of connector halves, or terminals not fully seated in the connector body (backed out). ^ Dirt or corrosion on the terminals. The terminals must be clean and free of any foreign material which could impede proper terminal contact. ^ Damaged connector body, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt, as well as not maintaining proper terminal orientation with the component or mating connector. ^ Improperly formed or damaged terminals. All connector terminals in problem circuits should be checked carefully to ensure good contact tension. Use a corresponding mating terminal to check for proper tension. ^ The J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit must be used whenever a diagnostic procedure requests checking or probing a terminal. Using the adapter will ensure that no damage to the terminal will occur, as well as giving an idea of whether contact tension is sufficient. ^ Poor terminal to wire connection. Some conditions which fall under this description are poor crimps, poor solder joints, crimping over wire insulation rather than the wire itself, corrosion in the wire to terminal contact area, etc. ^ Wire insulation which is rubbed through, causing an intermittent short as the bare area touches other wiring or parts of the vehicle. ^ Wiring broken inside the insulation. This condition could cause a continuity check to show a good circuit, but if only one or two strands of a multi-strand type wire are intact, resistance could be far too high. To avoid any of the above problems when making wiring or terminal repairs, always follow the instructions for wiring and terminal repair. Schematic Symbols Page 370 Page 1029 MISALIGNMENT ^ Outer race misalignment due to foreign object. Clean related parts and replace bearing. Make sure races are properly sealed. CRACKED INNER RACE ^ Race cracked due to improper fit, cocking, or poor bearing seats. Replace bearing and correct bearing seats. FATIGUE SPALLING ^ Flaking of surface metal resulting from fatigue. Replace bearing, clean all related parts. Page 561 Page 819 Hose/Line HVAC: Vehicle Damage Warnings WARNING: * SHOULD HFC-134A CONTACT YOUR EYE(S), CONSULT A DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY. * DO NOT RUB THE AFFECTED EYE(S). INSTEAD, SPLASH QUANTITIES OF FRESH COLD WATER OVER THE AFFECTED AREA TO GRADUALLY RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF THE REFRIGERANT ABOVE THE FREEZING POINT. * OBTAIN PROPER MEDICAL TREATMENT AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. SHOULD THE HFC-134A TOUCH THE SKIN, THE INJURY MUST BE TREATED THE SAME AS SKIN WHICH HAS BEEN FROSTBITTEN OR FROZEN. IMPORTANT: - Always wear safety goggle and protective gloves when working on refrigerant systems. - Beware of the danger of carbon monoxide fumes caused by running the engine. - Beware of discharged refrigerant in enclosed or improperly ventilated garages. - Always disconnect the negative battery cable and discharge and recover the refrigerant whenever repairing the air conditioning system CAUTION: Avoid breathing A/C Refrigerant-134a and lubricant vapor and mist. Exposure may irritate eyes, nose, and throat. To remove R-134a from the A/C system, use service equipment certified to meet the requirements of SAE J2210 (R-134a recycling equipment). If accidental system discharge occurs, ventilate the work area before resuming service. Additional health and safety information may be obtained from the refrigerant and lubricant manufacturers. IMPORTANT: - Do not mix R-12 refrigerant and R-134a refrigerant, even in the smallest amounts. R12 and R-134a are incompatible with each other. If the refrigerants are mixed, compressor failure is likely to occur. - Use only the specified lubricant (PAG) for the R-134a A/C system and R-134a components. If you use lubricants other than those specified, compressor failure is likely to occur. Coat all the fittings and the O-ring seals with clean 525 viscosity refrigerant oil in order to provide a leak-proof seal and in order to aid in assembly and disassembly. - Do not store or heat the refrigerant containers above 52 °C (125 °F). - Do not heat a refrigerant container with an open flame. If the container must be warmed, place the bottom of the container in a pail of warm water. - Do NOT intentionally do the following to the refrigerant containers: Drop - Puncture - Incinerate - Refrigerant will displace oxygen. Work in well ventilated areas in order to prevent suffocation. - Do NOT introduce compressed air to any refrigerant container or refrigerant component. Contamination will occur. - If you must carry a container of DOT CFR Refrigerant-134a in a vehicle, do not carry the refrigerant in the passenger compartment. All of the Refrigerant-134a disposable, blue containers are shipped with a heavy metal screw cap in order to protect the valve and the safety plug of the container from damage. Replace the cap after each use of the container in order to continue the protection. Page 917 Refrigerant: Testing and Inspection CAUTION: Do not operate the detector in a combustible atmosphere since its sensor operates at high temperature. Personal injury or damage to the equipment may result CAUTION: Take care to prevent personal injury which could occur due to touching a hot engine when testing. Tests should be done with the engine " OFF" and as cool as possible. Do not operate the detector in a combustible atmosphere since its sensor operates at high temperature. Perform a refrigerant leak test under the following conditions: - Whenever you suspect a leak - After a service operation that disturbs the components, lines or connections There are several methods and special tools available for leak testing. Use care in all cases. Electronic Leak Detector Tools Required J 39400-A Electronic Leak Detector IMPORTANT: Electronic leak detectors are sensitive to the following liquids: - Windshield washing solutions - Solvents - Cleaners - Adhesives Ensure that the surfaces are clean in order to prevent a false warning. Ensure that the surfaces are dry as ingestion of liquids will damage the detector. The J 39400-A is useful for locating refrigerant leaks. The J 39400-A operates on a 12 volt DC and emits signal that increases in frequency as R-134a is Page 499 Vehicle Speed Sensor: Service and Repair Removal Procedure 1. Raise the vehicle. Suitably support the vehicle. Refer to General Vehicle Lifting and Jacking in General Information. 2. Disconnect the electrical connector from the sensor. 3. Remove the bolt. 4. Remove the sensor and the O-ring seal. 5. Inspect the seal and the transmission case. Replace the seal, if necessary. Installation Procedure 1. Install the sensor and the O-ring seal to the transmission 2. Connect the electrical connector to the sensor. 3. Install the bolt. Tighten Tighten the bolt to 11 N.m (97 lb in). 4. Lower the vehicle. Park/Neutral Position Switch - Connector Stuck Transmission Position Switch/Sensor: All Technical Service Bulletins Park/Neutral Position Switch Connector Stuck BULLETIN NUMBER: SB98-05-L004 ISSUE DATE: NOVEMBER 1998 GROUP: TRANSMISSION 1997-98 HOMBRE (TH) PARK/NEUTRAL POSITION SWITCH CONNECTOR CANNOT BE REMOVED (REPLACE SWITCH AND CONNECTORS) AFFECTED VEHICLES 1997-98 Hombre (TH) models equipped with 4L60-E automatic transmission. SERVICE INFORMATION Condition: Technicians may have difficulty removing the connectors from the Park/Neutral Position Switch, usually when trying to remove the switch during transmission service. In rare cases, customers may also report switch related electrical conditions, such as improper or no shift indication, or no backup light operation. Possible Cause: High ambient heat may cause the sealing compound in the switch to melt and flow into the connectors, sealing the connectors to the switch. This normally causes no customer conditions, but may cause an open circuit in rare cases. Correction: In many cases, the switch can be removed and reinstalled without removing the connectors. If the switch is being removed as part of transmission service, and there are no switch related conditions, the switch can simply be reinstalled. Some applications have a mounting bolt behind the connectors. The switch will have to be removed and will probably be damaged in the process. The connector pigtails use wires, which are all the same color. Use the old connector as a pattern to insure that the new wires are connected to the harness correctly. IMPORTANT This switch is in a wet area. It is very important to solder the wires and use heat-shrink tubing to insure watertight connections. PARTS INFORMATION * Reusable. Replace if necessary. WARRANTY CLAIM INFORMATION Use the published labor operation. Page 424 Fuse Block Details The Fuse Block Details schematic shows all of the wiring between a fuse and the components connected to the fuse. The Fuse Block Details schematic is extremely helpful in locating a short circuit that causes a fuse to open. Ground Distribution a sample Ground Distribution schematic for the Headlamps. It shows exactly which components share each ground. This information can often be a time saver when troubleshooting ground circuits. For example, if both Headlamps and the Park/Turn Lamp on one side are out, suspect an open in their common ground wire or the ground connection Specifications Firing Order: Specifications Each cylinder is paired with the cylinder that is opposite of it (1-4 or 2-3). The spark occurs simultaneously in the cylinder coming up on the compression stroke and in the cylinder coming up on the exhaust stroke. Page 516 Page 111 Vehicle Control Module Connector C3 (Clear) (W/ M/T, W/O A/C) Page 742 Timing Marks and Indicators: Locations Timing Marks The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) controls ignition timing and no provisions for adjustment or timing marks are provided. Locations Locations Page 496 Vehicle Speed Sensor: Electrical Diagrams Page 338 Step 2: Read the Headlamps Electrical Schematic. This is the step that will save time and labor. Remember, it is essential to understand how a circuit should work before trying to figure out why it doesn't. After you understand how the circuit should operate, read the schematic again, this time keeping in mind what you have learned by operating the circuit. Since both Low beams work, you know that the Headlamp Switch, the YEL wire, the Low contacts of the Headlamp Dimmer Switch, terminal "1E" of C100, the TAN wires, and grounds G105 and G109 are all good. Furthermore, since you saw that the High Beam Indicator came on when the Headlamp Dimmer Switch was moved to "High," you know that the High contacts of the Headlamp Dimmer Switch and the LT GRN wire between the Headlamp Dimmer Switch and C100 are good. At this point, you could test for voltage at the RH Headlamp with the Headlamp Dimmer Switch in "High." However, it is extremely unlikely that the High beam filaments have burned out in both headlamps, or that both headlamp connections are bad. The cause must be a bad connection at C100, or a break in the LT GRN wire between C100 and the RH Headlamp. You have quickly narrowed the possible causes down to one specific area, and have done absolutely no work on the vehicle itself. Step 3: Find the Fault and Repair it Using the Component Location Table and the corresponding figure, you can quickly find C100 and the LT GRN wire, locate the exact trouble point and make the repair. Step 4: Check the Repair by Performing a System Check on the Head lamps Circuit This, of course, means making sure that both High beams, both Low beams, and the High Beam Indicator are all working. Now suppose that the symptoms were different. You may have operated the Headlamps and found that the Low beams were working, but neither the High beams nor the High Beam Indicator were working. Looking at the schematic, you might conclude that it is unlikely that both High beam filaments and the High Beam Indicator have all burned out at once. The cause is probably the Headlamp Dimmer Switch or its connector. Checking Terminal Contact When diagnosing an electrical system that utilizes Metri-Pack 150/280/480/630 series terminals, it is important to check terminal contact between a connector and component, or between in-line connectors, before replacing a suspect component. Refer to J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit or J 38125-4 Instruction Manual for terminal identification. Frequently, diagnostics lead to a step that reads: "Check for poor connection." Mating terminals must be inspected to assure good terminal contact. A poor connection between the male and female terminal at a connector may be the result of contamination or deformation. Contamination is caused by the connector halves being improperly connected, a missing or damaged connector seal, or damage to the connector itself, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt. Contamination, usually in underhood or underbody connectors, leads to terminal corrosion, causing an open circuit or intermittently open circuit. Page 1141 Crankshaft Main Bearing: Specifications Crankshaft Bearing Cap Bolts Step 1 50 Nm (37 ft.lb) Step 2 95 Nm (70 ft.lb) Page 255 Parking Brake Warning Switch: Diagrams Park Brake Warning Switch Page 623 Page 487 Deformation is caused by probing the mating side of a connector terminal without the proper adapter, improperly joining the connector halves or repeatedly separating and joining the connector halves. Deformation, usually to the female terminal contact tang, can result in poor terminal contact, causing an open or intermittently open circuit. Follow the procedure below to check terminal contact. 1. Separate the connector halves. 2. Inspect the connector halves for contamination. Contamination will result in a white or green build-up within the connector body or between terminals, causing high terminal resistance, intermittent contact, or an open circuit. An underhood or underbody connector that shows signs of contamination should be replaced in its entirety: terminals, seals, and connector body. 3. Using an equivalent male terminal from the J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit, check the retention force of the female terminal in question by inserting and removing the male terminal to the female terminal in the connector body. Good terminal contact will require a certain amount of force to separate the terminals. 4. Using an equivalent female terminal from the J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit, compare the retention force of this terminal to the female terminal in question by joining and separating the male terminal to the good female terminal, and then joining and separating the male terminal to the female terminal in question. If the retention force is significantly different between the two female terminals, replace the female terminal in question. If a visual (physical) check does not reveal the cause of the problem, the vehicle may be able to be driven with a DMM connected to the suspected circuit An abnormal voltage reading when the problem occurs indicates the problem may be in that circuit. Detecting Electrical Intermittents Use the following procedure to detect intermittent terminal contact or a broken wire with an intermittent connection inside the insulation. The J 39200 Digital Multimeter (DMM) has the ability to monitor current, resistance, or voltage while recording the minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) values measured. The DMM can also be set to display the average (AVG) value measured. When diagnosing circuits that have voltage applied, use the voltage setting to monitor a connector (or length of a circuit) which is suspected of having an intermittent connection but is currently operating normally. 1. Connect the J 39200 Digital Multimeter to both sides of a suspect connector (still connected) or from one end of a suspect circuit to the other. This will continuously monitor the terminal contacts or length of wire being checked. Refer to "Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections" in this section for examples of the various methods for connecting the DMM to the circuit 2. Set the DMM for voltage. Since the "MIN MAX" mode does not use auto ranging, manually select the voltage range necessary before proceeding. 3. Press the "MIN MAX" button. The DMM should read "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) and emit a 1/4 second beep. The DMM is now ready to record and will generate an audible tone for any change in voltage. At this point, you may wish to press the "PEAK MIN MAX" button, which will record any voltage variations that occur for at least 1 millisecond. 4. Try to simulate the condition that is potentially causing an intermittent connection, either by wiggling connections or wiring, test driving or performing other operations. If an open or resistance is created, a voltage will be present and the DMM will emit a tone for as long as the open or resistance exists. Any change in voltage will cause the DMM to emit a tone for no less than 1/4 second. (Listening for a tone while manipulating wiring is very helpful for narrowing down an intermittent connection.) Use the MIN and MAX values when the DMM is out of sight or sound range, in noisy areas or for test driving when it may not be possible to monitor the DMM. To check the MIN and MAX recorded voltages press "MIN MAX" once for MAX and twice for MIN. A variation between MIN and MAX recorded voltages (unless nearly 0 volts) suggests an intermittent open or that resistance exists and should be repaired as necessary. Page 982 FUSE 17, WIPER, FUSE 11, RADIO Page 328 Page 919 - If any refrigerant line is opened to the atmosphere, cap it immediately to prevent the entrance of moisture and dirt. These can cause internal compressor wear or plugged lines in the condenser and evaporator core and expansion (orifice) tubes or compressor inlet screens. - Remove sealing caps from subassemblies just before making connections for final assembly. Use a small amount of clean 525 viscosity refrigerant oil on all tube and hose joints. Use new O-ring seals dipped in 525 viscosity refrigerant oil when assembling joints. The oil will aid in assembly and help to provide a leakproof joint. O-ring seals and seats must be in perfect condition. A burr or a piece of dirt can cause a refrigerant leak. Using The Two Wrench Method Proper O-ring Installation Improper O-ring Installation Page 457 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to one end of the part of the circuit you wish to test. 3. Connect the other lead to the other end of the circuit. 4. If the self-powered test light glows, there is continuity. When using an ohmmeter, low or no resistance means good continuity. With A Test Light or Digital Multimeter (DMM) 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the load. 2. Connect a test light or voltmeter across the fuse terminals (be sure that the fuse is powered). 3. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the test light or DMM. 4. when the test light glows, or the DMM registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. With A Self-Powered Test Light or Ohmmeter 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the Battery and load. 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to the fuse terminal on the load side. 3. Connect the other lead to a known good ground. 4. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the self-powered test light or ohmmeter. 5. When the self-powered test light glows, or the ohmmeter registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. Fuses Powering Several Loads 1. Find the schematic in "Fuse Block Details," for the fuse that has blown. 2. Open the first connector or switch leading from the fuse to each load. 3. Replace the fuse. ^ If the fuse blows, the short is in the wiring leading to the first connector or switch. Use a test light or DMM. ^ If fuse does not blow, refer to next step. 4. Close each connector or switch until the fuse blows in order to find which circuit has the short. Connect test light or DMM at the connector to the suspect circuit (disconnected) rather than at the fuse terminals. Page 974 Fuse Block: Electrical Diagrams Circuit Breakers A and B Page 877 Fluid - M/T: Application and ID KEY TO LUBRICATION ABBREVIATIONS NOTE: Some manufacturer lubricant names may differ from the following list. If the manufacturer does not recommend a specific lubricant, use the following. AF Dexron-III Automatic Transmission Fluid Power Steering, Dexron-II CC Motor Oil, API Service CC CD Motor Oil, API Service CD CE Motor Oil, API Service CE EC Ethylene Glycol Coolant GF-1 Motor oil, API Service GF-1 GL-4 Gear Oil, API Service GL-4 GL-5 Gear Oil, API Service GL-5 HB Hydraulic Brake Fluid, SAE J1703, DOT-3 or 4 LM Lithium Multipurpose Grease PC Carburetor Cleaner MO Motor Oil, API service MO SG Motor Oil, API service SG SH Motor Oil, API service SH WB Wheel Bearing Grease Page 572 This service bulletin contains the revised pages to the referenced Workshop Manual (Book 2). Attach the included pages to the referenced Workshop Leak Check - Repair of Refrigerant Leaks Refrigerant: Service and Repair Leak Check - Repair of Refrigerant Leaks CAUTION: Do not operate the detector in a combustible atmosphere since its sensor operates at high temperature. Personal injury or damage to the equipment may result CAUTION: Take care to prevent personal injury which could occur due to touching a hot engine when testing. Tests should be done with the engine " OFF" and as cool as possible. Do not operate the detector in a combustible atmosphere since its sensor operates at high temperature. Perform a refrigerant leak test under the following conditions: - Whenever you suspect a leak - After a service operation that disturbs the components, lines or connections There are several methods and special tools available for leak testing. Use care in all cases. Electronic Leak Detector Tools Required J 39400-A Electronic Leak Detector IMPORTANT: Electronic leak detectors are sensitive to the following liquids: - Windshield washing solutions - Solvents - Cleaners - Adhesives Ensure that the surfaces are clean in order to prevent a false warning. Ensure that the surfaces are dry as ingestion of liquids will damage the detector. Page 695 Alignment: Service and Repair Camber and Caster CAMBER AND CASTER NOTE: ^ Before adjusting caster and camber angles, the front bumper should be raised and released twice to allow the vehicle to return to its normal height. ^ Caster and camber adjustments are made by inserting shims between the upper control arm shaft and the frame bracket. Shims may be added, subtracted or transferred to change the readings. ^ To adjust caster and camber, loosen the upper control arm shaft-to-frame nuts, add or remove shims as required, and torque the nuts. Toe-in must be checked after changing caster or camber. 1. To adjust caster, transfer shims from front to rear or rear to front. The transfer of one shim from the rear bolt to the front bolt will decrease positive caster. 2. To adjust camber,change shims at both the front and rear of the shaft. Adding an equal number of shims at both the front and rear of the upper control arm will decrease positive camber. A normal shim pack will leave at least two threads of the bolt exposed beyond the nut. The difference between front and rear shim packs must not exceed 10 mm (0.40 inch). If these requirements cannot be met, check for damaged control arms and related parts. Tighten the nut on the thinner shim pack first. This improves the upper control arm shaft-to-frame clamping force and torque retention. Page 461 Throttle Position Sensor: Description and Operation Throttle Position (TP) Sensor The Throttle Position (TP) sensor is a potentiometer connected to the throttle shaft on the throttle body. The TP sensor electrical circuit consists of a 5 volt supply line and a ground line, both provided by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM), and a signal line to the PCM. By monitoring the voltage on this signal line, the PCM can calculate the throttle position angle in a percentage. As the throttle valve angle is changed (accelerator pedal moved), the output of the TP sensor also changes. At a closed throttle position, the output of the TP sensor is low (approximately 0.6 volt). As the throttle valve opens, the output increases so that, at wide open throttle, the output voltage should be near 5 volts. The PCM can determine the fuel delivery based on the throttle valve angle (driver demand). A broken or loose TP sensor can cause intermittent bursts of fuel from the injectors and an unstable idle, because the PCM thinks the throttle is moving. A high or low voltage problem in the TP sensor circuits should set either a DTC P0122 or DTC P0123. The PCM also has the capability of setting a DTC P0121 if the sensor is reading out of range. Once a diagnostic trouble code is set, the PCM will use a default value for the TP sensor, and some vehicle performance will return. See On-Vehicle Service in this section for replacement of the TP sensor. The TP sensor is not adjustable. Page 957 A/C Compressor Relay(2.2L Engine) .......................................................................................................................... Center rear of engine compartment Air Temperature Valve Electric Actuator ...................................................................................................................................... Top of heater assembly Auxiliary Power Outlets ............................................................................................................................................................ Center of instrument panel Backup Lamp Switch (Manual Transmission) 2.2L Engine .......................................................................................................... RH side of transmission Brake Pressure Modulator Valve ....................................................................................................... LH side of engine compartment above wheel house Camshaft Position Sensor (4.3L Engine) ....................................................................................................................................... Rear edge of distributor Cigarette Lighter ................................................................................................................. ...................................................... Center of instrument panel Clutch Pedal Position And Cruise Control Shutoff Switch .............................................................................................. On clutch pedal support bracket Console Courtesy Lamp, LF ........................................................................................................................................ Lower LH side of instrument panel Console Courtesy Lamp, RF ........................................................................................................................................ Lower RH side of instrument panel Crankshaft Position Sensor (4.3L Engine) ............................................................................................... Below engine RH front, near harmonic balancer Cruise Control Module LH ........................................................................................................................................ rear of engine compartment on cowl Data Link Connector Lower .................................................................................................................................................... LH side of instrument panel LOCATION OF CONNECTORS C600 (13 cavities) ............................................................................................................. Cross body harness to RH front door harness, Inside RH door C6O1 (16 cavities) ............................................................................................................. Cross body harness to RH front door harness, Inside RH door LOCATION OF GROMMETS P100 .................................................................................................................................................... ............ At cowl on LH rear of engine compartment P101 ................................................................... .............................................................................................. To the rear of and below the blower motor P500 .......................................................................................................................................... ............................................................... At LH front door P600 .......................................................... ............................................................................................................................................... At RH front door LOCATION OF SPLICES S105 (2.2L Engine) ........................................................................................... Engine harness, 12 cm left of A/C Refrigerant Pressure Sensor breakout S105 (4.3L Engine) ................................................................................................................................... Engine harness, 7.5 cm from C111 breakout S107 (2.2L Engine) ............................................................................................................................. Engine harness, 15 cm from dash harness breakout S1O7 (4.3L Engine) ................................................................................. Engine harness, 4 cm from C1O4 breakout and toward the generator breakout Page 277 Door Switch: Diagrams Front Side Door Jamb Switch, LH Front Side Door Jamb Switch, RH Page 93 Vehicle Control Module Connector C3 (Clear) (W/ M/T, W/ A/C) DTC P0122 & Knock Sensor Service Revisions Knock Sensor: Technical Service Bulletins DTC P0122 & Knock Sensor Service Revisions BULLETIN NUMBER: SB98-03-L003 ISSUE DATE: OCTOBER 1998 GROUP: EMISSIONS 1997 HOMBRE (TH) DTC P0122 AND KNOCK SENSOR REPLACEMENT PROCEDURES (WORKSHOP MANUAL REVISIONS) AFFECTED VEHICLES 1997 Hombre (TH) models equipped with 4.3L V6 engine. SERVICE INFORMATION This bulletin revises DTC P0122 and the Knock Sensor Replacement Procedure in Section 6. - DTC P0122: Change STEP 3 under "Yes" answer to "Go to Step 12" on page 6-910. - Knock Sensor Replacement Procedure (Please see the included page for the revised procedure.) Manual Page No. TH097-WSM-LO1 6-1218 through 6-1219 (Book 2) (Additional pages have been added.) Page 347 Double Diaphragm Motors can be operated by vacuum in two directions. When there is no vacuum, the motor is in the center "AT REST" position. Some Vacuum Motors such as the Servo Motor in the Cruise Control can position the actuating arm at any position between fully extended and fully retracted. The servo is operated by a control valve that applies varying amounts of vacuum to the motor. The higher the vacuum level, the greater the retraction of the motor arm. Servo Motors work like the two position motors; the only difference is in the way the vacuum is applied. Servo Motors are generally larger and provide a calibrated control. Page 381 Page 897 Engine Oil: Fluid Type Specifications Engine Oil All temperatures .................................................................................................................................. ...................................................... 5W-30 (preferred) Above -18° C (0° F) ........................................ ................................................................................................................................................. SAE 10W-30 Page 32 Compressor Clutch Relay: Diagrams 2.2L 4.3L Page 408 Page 1118 Use the published labor operation as shown. Labor Time includes administrative time allowance. Page 629 Fuse Block Details The Fuse Block Details schematic shows all of the wiring between a fuse and the components connected to the fuse. The Fuse Block Details schematic is extremely helpful in locating a short circuit that causes a fuse to open. Ground Distribution a sample Ground Distribution schematic for the Headlamps. It shows exactly which components share each ground. This information can often be a time saver when troubleshooting ground circuits. For example, if both Headlamps and the Park/Turn Lamp on one side are out, suspect an open in their common ground wire or the ground connection No Malfunction Indicator Lamp Malfunction Indicator Lamp: Testing and Inspection No Malfunction Indicator Lamp No Malfunction Indicator Lamp Circuit Description When the ignition is turned on, the MIL will momentarily flash on then off. When no Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) are stored, the MIL will then remain on until the engine is running. The battery voltage is supplied through the ignition switch directly to the MIL telltale. The Powertrain Control Module (PCM) controls the MIL by providing a ground path through the MIL control circuit in order to turn on the MIL. Diagnostic Aids An open ignition fuse causes the MIL to be inoperative. Check any circuitry that is suspected of causing an intermittent problem for the following conditions: Improper mating - Broken locks - Improperly formed or damaged terminals Physical damage to the wiring harness Test Description Page 1035 Wheel Bearing: Service and Repair Rear Tools Required: J 2619-01 Slide Hammer J 2619-4 Adapter J 22813-01 Axle Bearing Puller J 8092 Driver Handle J 23765 Axle Shaft Bearing Installer J 23771 Axle Shaft Seal Installer REMOVE OR DISCONNECT 1. Brake drum and wheel. 2. Axle shaft. 3. Seal using a seal removal tool behind the steel case of the seal. - Be careful not to damage the housing. 4. Bearing using J 2619-01, J 2619-4, and J 22813-01 or equivalents. - The tangs of the tool should engage the bearing outer race. INSTALL OR CONNECT Page 509 Fuse Block Details The Fuse Block Details schematic shows all of the wiring between a fuse and the components connected to the fuse. The Fuse Block Details schematic is extremely helpful in locating a short circuit that causes a fuse to open. Ground Distribution a sample Ground Distribution schematic for the Headlamps. It shows exactly which components share each ground. This information can often be a time saver when troubleshooting ground circuits. For example, if both Headlamps and the Park/Turn Lamp on one side are out, suspect an open in their common ground wire or the ground connection Page 1139 Part 2 Of 3 Page 360 Deformation is caused by probing the mating side of a connector terminal without the proper adapter, improperly joining the connector halves or repeatedly separating and joining the connector halves. Deformation, usually to the female terminal contact tang, can result in poor terminal contact, causing an open or intermittently open circuit. Follow the procedure below to check terminal contact. 1. Separate the connector halves. 2. Inspect the connector halves for contamination. Contamination will result in a white or green build-up within the connector body or between terminals, causing high terminal resistance, intermittent contact, or an open circuit. An underhood or underbody connector that shows signs of contamination should be replaced in its entirety: terminals, seals, and connector body. 3. Using an equivalent male terminal from the J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit, check the retention force of the female terminal in question by inserting and removing the male terminal to the female terminal in the connector body. Good terminal contact will require a certain amount of force to separate the terminals. 4. Using an equivalent female terminal from the J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit, compare the retention force of this terminal to the female terminal in question by joining and separating the male terminal to the good female terminal, and then joining and separating the male terminal to the female terminal in question. If the retention force is significantly different between the two female terminals, replace the female terminal in question. If a visual (physical) check does not reveal the cause of the problem, the vehicle may be able to be driven with a DMM connected to the suspected circuit An abnormal voltage reading when the problem occurs indicates the problem may be in that circuit. Detecting Electrical Intermittents Use the following procedure to detect intermittent terminal contact or a broken wire with an intermittent connection inside the insulation. The J 39200 Digital Multimeter (DMM) has the ability to monitor current, resistance, or voltage while recording the minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) values measured. The DMM can also be set to display the average (AVG) value measured. When diagnosing circuits that have voltage applied, use the voltage setting to monitor a connector (or length of a circuit) which is suspected of having an intermittent connection but is currently operating normally. 1. Connect the J 39200 Digital Multimeter to both sides of a suspect connector (still connected) or from one end of a suspect circuit to the other. This will continuously monitor the terminal contacts or length of wire being checked. Refer to "Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections" in this section for examples of the various methods for connecting the DMM to the circuit 2. Set the DMM for voltage. Since the "MIN MAX" mode does not use auto ranging, manually select the voltage range necessary before proceeding. 3. Press the "MIN MAX" button. The DMM should read "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) and emit a 1/4 second beep. The DMM is now ready to record and will generate an audible tone for any change in voltage. At this point, you may wish to press the "PEAK MIN MAX" button, which will record any voltage variations that occur for at least 1 millisecond. 4. Try to simulate the condition that is potentially causing an intermittent connection, either by wiggling connections or wiring, test driving or performing other operations. If an open or resistance is created, a voltage will be present and the DMM will emit a tone for as long as the open or resistance exists. Any change in voltage will cause the DMM to emit a tone for no less than 1/4 second. (Listening for a tone while manipulating wiring is very helpful for narrowing down an intermittent connection.) Use the MIN and MAX values when the DMM is out of sight or sound range, in noisy areas or for test driving when it may not be possible to monitor the DMM. To check the MIN and MAX recorded voltages press "MIN MAX" once for MAX and twice for MIN. A variation between MIN and MAX recorded voltages (unless nearly 0 volts) suggests an intermittent open or that resistance exists and should be repaired as necessary. Page 978 Fuse 5, ENG-1 Page 1086 Rocker Arm Assembly: Description and Operation ^ The rocker arm pivots on a ball in order to open the valve. ^ The hydraulic valve lifters keep all the parts of the valve train in constant contact. ^ The rocker arm stud retains the rocker arm ball with a locking nut. The rocker arm stud is threaded into the cylinder head. ^ The rocker arm is positioned and retained on the rocker arm stud with a specific locking nut, lash is net build. Initial Inspection and Diagnostic Overview Air Bag Control Module: Initial Inspection and Diagnostic Overview Accident With or Without Air Bag Deployment - Component Inspections Caution: Proper operation of the Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) requires that any repairs to the vehicle structure return the vehicle structure to the original production configuration. Not properly repairing the vehicle structure could cause non-deployment of the air bag in a frontal collision or deployment of the air bag for conditions less severe than intended. After any collision, inspect the following components as indicated. If you detect any damage, replace the component. If you detect any damage to the mounting points or mounting hardware, repair the component or replace the hardware as needed. Steering column - Perform the steering column accident damage checking procedures. IP Knee Bolsters - Inspect the knee bolsters for bending, twisting, buckling, or any other type of damage. IP brackets, braces, etc. - Inspect for bending, twisting, buckling, or any other type of damage. Seat Belts - Perform the seat belt operational and functional checks. Accident With Air Bag Deployment - Component Replacement and Inspections After a collision involving air bag deployment, replace the following components. If you detect any damage to the mounting points or mounting hardware, repair or replace the mounting points and mounting hardware as needed. - Supplemental restraint IP (inflator) module. - Supplemental restraint steering wheel (inflator) module. - Supplemental restraint Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM). - The supplemental restraint front end discriminating sensor. After a collision involving air bag deployment, inspect the supplemental restraint steering wheel module coil and the coil wiring pigtail for melting, scorching, or other damage due to excessive heat. Perform this component inspection in addition to the inspections indicated above in Accident With or Without Air Bag Deployment. If you detect any damage, replace the component. If you detect any damage to the mounting points or mounting hardware, repair the component or replace the hardware as needed. Sensor Replacement Guidelines The SRS sensor replacement policy requires replacing sensors in the area of accident damage. The area of accident damage is defined as the portion of the vehicle which is crushed, bent, or damaged due to a collision. For example, a moderate collision where the front of the vehicle impacts a tree. If the vehicle has a SRS sensor mounted forward of the radiator, it must be replaced. Replace the sensor whether or not the air bags have deployed. Replace the sensor even if it appears to be undamaged. Sensor damage which is not visible, such as slight bending of the mounting bracket or cuts in the wire insulation, can cause improper operation of the SRS sensing system. Do not try to determine whether the sensor is undamaged, replace the sensor. Also, if you follow a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) table and a malfunctioning sensor is indicated, replace the sensor. Front Wheel Bearing: Service and Repair Front REMOVAL NOTE: The Special Service Tool (SST) required to complete this replacement is a J 29117-A wheel bearing cup remover. 1. Raise the vehicle and support it with safety stands,then remove the brake caliper. NOTE: Suitably support the caliper to prevent damage to the brake hose. 2. Remove the bearing cap from the rotor. 3. Remove the cotter pin, nut, and washer, then remove the rotor from the spindle being careful not to damage the outer bearing and spindle threads. 4. Remove the outer bearing and pry the seal out and discard it. 5. Remove the inner bearing using the J 29117-A tool to remove the inner race. 6. Clean all the parts in a solvent and air dry. Do not spin the bearings with compressed air. Make sure all parts are clean and free of grease. 7. Inspect the rotor, bearings and races for a cracked cage, worn or pitted rollers, cracks, scores, or a brinelled condition. INSTALLATION NOTE: Apply an approved high-temperature front wheel bearing grease to the spindle at the inner and outer bearing seat, shoulder, and seal seat. Also use a finger to apply a small amount of grease inboard of each bearing cup in the rotor. Pressure pack the bearings with a greasing machine or hand pack them, making sure the grease is worked thoroughly into the rollers, cone, and cage. 1. Insert the inner bearing into the rotor, applying an additional quantity of grease outboard of the inner bearing. 2. Install the seal and do the following. a. Lubricate the seal lip. b. Use a flat plate to press the seal down flush with the hub. c. Seat the outer bearing and cup. 3. Place the rotor onto the spindle, being careful not to scuff the spindle threads. Page 646 Transmission Mode Switch: Service and Repair Removal Procedure 1. Apply the parking brake. 2. Shift the transmission into neutral. 3. Disconnect the negative battery cable. 4. Remove the nut securing the transmission control lever to the manual shaft. 5. Remove the transmission control lever from the manual shaft. 6. Disconnect the wiring harness connector from the park/neutral position switch. 7. Remove two bolts securing the park/neutral position switch to the transmission. 8. Remove the park/neutral position switch from the manual shaft. Installation Procedure Tools Required J41364-A 1. Position the J 41364-A onto the park/neutral position switch. Ensure that the two slots on the switch where the manual shaft is inserted are lined up with the lower two tabs on the tool. 2. Rotate the tool until the upper locator pin on the tool is lined up with the slot on the top of the switch. 3. If the park/neutral position switch did not slide off the manual shaft, file the outer edge of the manual shaft in order to remove any burrs. 4. Install the switch to the transmission manual shaft by aligning the switch hub flats with the manual shaft flats. 5. Slide the switch onto the transmission manual shaft until the switch mounting bracket contacts the mounting bosses on the transmission. 6. Install the switch to the transmission with two bolts. Tighten Tighten the bolts securing the switch to 28 N.m (21 lb ft). Page 1026 ETCHING ^ Bearing surfaces appear gray or grayish black in color with related etching away of material usually at roller spacing. Replace bearings, check seals, and check for proper lubrication. First Of Two Second Of Two BENT CAGE ^ Cage damaged due to improper handling or tool usage. Replace bearing. Page 981 Fuse 1, STOP HAZ, FUSE 7, PWR AUX, FUSE 13, RDO BATT Page 238 Dimmer Switch: Diagrams Panel Dimmer Switch Page 947 After the air bag assembly has been deployed, the surface of the air bag may contain a powdery residue. This powder consists primarily of cornstarch (used to lubricate the bag as it inflates) and by products of the chemical reaction. Sodium hydroxide dust (similar to lye soap) is produced as a by product of the deployment reaction. The sodium hydroxide then quickly reacts with atmospheric moisture and is converted to sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). Therefore, it is unlikely that sodium hydroxide will be present after deployment. Components CAUTION: This vehicle has a Supplemental Restraint System (SRS). Refer to the SRS Component Location View in order to determine whether you are performing service on or near the SRS components or the SRS wiring. When you are performing service on or near the SRS components or the SRS wiring, refer to the SRS On-Vehicle Service information. Failure to follow the CAUTIONS could cause air bag deployment, personal injury or unnecessary SRS repairs. The supplemental restraint Diagnostic Energy Reserve Module (DERM) maintains a reserve energy. When the vehicle power is insufficient to cause deployment of the air bag, the reserve energy supply provides the deployment power. Deployment power is available for as much as two minutes after disconnecting the vehicle power by any of the following methods: ^ Turn OFF the ignition switch ^ Remove the fuse that powers the DERM ^ Disconnect the vehicle battery from the vehicle electrical system. Performing the following procedures prevents deploying of the air bag from the reserve energy supply power. Disconnecting the DERM inflator module from the deployment loop allows you to begin service immediately without waiting for the two minute time period to expire. Refer to Disabling the SRS. Electrical Test Equipment When using electrical test equipment, insert the probe of the tester into the wire side of the connector. Do not insert the probe of the tester into the terminal side of the connector, and do not tamper with the connector. Inserting the probe into the terminal side of the connector, and tampering the connector could cause malfunction of the SRS system or an error in inspection. Use a probe with the correct tip. Do not insert the probe forcibly. Specifications Clutch Fluid: Specifications Clutch Fluid DOT 3 or 4 Hydraulic Brake Fluid, SAEJ1703 Page 113 Vehicle Control Module Connector C3 (Clear) (W/ A/T, W/O A/C) Specifications Camshaft Thrust Plate: Specifications TIGHTENING SPECIFICATIONS Bolts ..................................................................................................................................................... ........................................... 12 Nm (106 inch lbs.) Page 438 Oxygen Sensor: Description and Operation Oxygen Sensor (O2S 1) The Oxygen Sensor (O2S 1) is mounted in the exhaust system where it can monitor the oxygen content of the exhaust gas stream. The oxygen content in the exhaust reacts with the sensor to produce a voltage output. This voltage ranges from approximately.1 volt (high oxygen - lean mixture) to 0.9 volt (low oxygen - rich mixture). This voltage can be measured with a scan tool. By monitoring the voltage output of the O2S 1, the PCM will know what fuel mixture command to give to the injectors. Lean mixture - low O2S 1 voltage = rich command - Rich mixture - high O2S 1 voltage = lean command The O2S 1, if open, should set a DTC P0134. A constant low voltage in the sensor circuit should set a DTC P0131. A constant high voltage in the circuit should set a DTC P0132. DTCs P0131 and P0132 could also be set as a result of fuel system problems. See DTC tables for conditions that can cause a lean or rich system. Page 378 Crankshaft Rotation Timing Marks and Indicators: Locations Crankshaft Rotation Crankshaft Rotation (Typical Crankshaft Pulley) Crankshaft rotation is clockwise when viewed from in front of the crankshaft pulley as shown in the generic image. Page 199 Locations Page 411 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to one end of the part of the circuit you wish to test. 3. Connect the other lead to the other end of the circuit. 4. If the self-powered test light glows, there is continuity. When using an ohmmeter, low or no resistance means good continuity. With A Test Light or Digital Multimeter (DMM) 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the load. 2. Connect a test light or voltmeter across the fuse terminals (be sure that the fuse is powered). 3. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the test light or DMM. 4. when the test light glows, or the DMM registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. With A Self-Powered Test Light or Ohmmeter 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the Battery and load. 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to the fuse terminal on the load side. 3. Connect the other lead to a known good ground. 4. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the self-powered test light or ohmmeter. 5. When the self-powered test light glows, or the ohmmeter registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. Fuses Powering Several Loads 1. Find the schematic in "Fuse Block Details," for the fuse that has blown. 2. Open the first connector or switch leading from the fuse to each load. 3. Replace the fuse. ^ If the fuse blows, the short is in the wiring leading to the first connector or switch. Use a test light or DMM. ^ If fuse does not blow, refer to next step. 4. Close each connector or switch until the fuse blows in order to find which circuit has the short. Connect test light or DMM at the connector to the suspect circuit (disconnected) rather than at the fuse terminals. Page 1066 Camshaft: Description and Operation The camshaft is steel. The camshaft is supported by four bearings pressed into the engine block. The camshaft timing chain sprocket mounted to the front of the camshaft is driven by the crankshaft sprocket thorough a camshaft timing chain. A spiral gear machined into the camshaft near the rear journal drives a shaft assembly which operates the oil pump drive assembly. Page 948 Use specified service connectors in troubleshooting. Using tools which are not specified standard design could cause an error in inspection due to poor metal-to-metal contact. Fasteners CAUTION: Always use the correct fastener in the proper location. When you replace a fastener, use ONLY the exact part number for that application. ISUZU will call out those fasteners that require a replacement after removal. ISUZU will also call out the fasteners that require thread lockers or thread sealant. UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, do not use supplemental coatings (Paints, greases, or other corrosion inhibitors) on threaded fasteners or fastener joint interfaces. Generally, such coatings adversely affect the fastener torque and the joint clamping force, and may damage the fastener. When you install fasteners, use the correct tightening sequence and specifications. Following these instructions can help you avoid damage to parts and systems. CAUTION: When fasteners are removed, always reinstall them at the same location from which they were removed. if a fastener needs to be replaced, use the correct part number fastener for that application. if the correct part number fastener is not available, a fastener of equal size and strength (or stronger) may be used. fasteners that are not reused, and those requiring thread locking compound will be called out. the correct torque value must be used when installing fasteners that require it. if the above conditions are not followed, parts or system damage could result. Wiring Never attempt to modify, splice or repair SRS wiring. NOTE: SRS wiring can be identified by special yellow outer protective covering. Be sure to install the harness wires so that they are not pinched or interfering with other parts. Make sure all SRS ground locations are clean and grounds are securely fastened for optimum metal-to-metal contact. Poor grounding can cause intermittent problems that are difficult to diagnose. Page 315 itself. On the other hand, if one of the lamps work, the ground and the wire up to the splice are good. You have learned this just by inspecting the schematic and knowing the vehicle's symptoms. No actual work on the lighting system was needed. Page 101 DTC P0122 & Knock Sensor Service Revisions Knock Sensor: Technical Service Bulletins DTC P0122 & Knock Sensor Service Revisions BULLETIN NUMBER: SB98-03-L003 ISSUE DATE: OCTOBER 1998 GROUP: EMISSIONS 1997 HOMBRE (TH) DTC P0122 AND KNOCK SENSOR REPLACEMENT PROCEDURES (WORKSHOP MANUAL REVISIONS) AFFECTED VEHICLES 1997 Hombre (TH) models equipped with 4.3L V6 engine. SERVICE INFORMATION This bulletin revises DTC P0122 and the Knock Sensor Replacement Procedure in Section 6. - DTC P0122: Change STEP 3 under "Yes" answer to "Go to Step 12" on page 6-910. - Knock Sensor Replacement Procedure (Please see the included page for the revised procedure.) Manual Page No. TH097-WSM-LO1 6-1218 through 6-1219 (Book 2) (Additional pages have been added.) Page 437 Page 153 Starter Relay: Diagrams Starter Relay (W/ M/T) Starter Relay (W/ A/T) Page 991 Locations Page 634 Important: ^ The "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) mode is NOT the runout of time allowed to perform a specific procedure. It is the amount of time used to record each snapshot of information used for calculating "AVG" when in the "MIN MAX" mode. Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections The previous diagnostic procedure was written to detect intermittents using the DMM set to voltage. Whether using the current, voltage, or resistance setting to detect intermittents, it is necessary to properly connect the DMM to the circuit. Following are examples of the various methods of connecting the DMM to the circuit to be checked: ^ Backprobe both ends of the connector and either hold the leads in place while manipulating the connector or tape the leads to the harness for continuous monitoring while performing other operations or test driving. (Do not backprobe "Weather Pack (R)" type connectors.) ^ Disconnect the harness at both ends of the suspect circuit where it connects either to a component or to other harnesses. ^ Use J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit to connect the DMM to the circuit. ^ If the system being diagnosed has a specified pinout or breakout box, it may be used to simplify connecting the DMM to the circuit or for checking multiple circuits quickly. Intermittent and Poor Connections Most intermittence are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring, although occasionally a sticking relay or solenoid can be a problem. Some items to check are: ^ Poor mating of connector halves, or terminals not fully seated in the connector body (backed out). ^ Dirt or corrosion on the terminals. The terminals must be clean and free of any foreign material which could impede proper terminal contact. ^ Damaged connector body, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt, as well as not maintaining proper terminal orientation with the component or mating connector. ^ Improperly formed or damaged terminals. All connector terminals in problem circuits should be checked carefully to ensure good contact tension. Use a corresponding mating terminal to check for proper tension. ^ The J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit must be used whenever a diagnostic procedure requests checking or probing a terminal. Using the adapter will ensure that no damage to the terminal will occur, as well as giving an idea of whether contact tension is sufficient. ^ Poor terminal to wire connection. Some conditions which fall under this description are poor crimps, poor solder joints, crimping over wire insulation rather than the wire itself, corrosion in the wire to terminal contact area, etc. ^ Wire insulation which is rubbed through, causing an intermittent short as the bare area touches other wiring or parts of the vehicle. ^ Wiring broken inside the insulation. This condition could cause a continuity check to show a good circuit, but if only one or two strands of a multi-strand type wire are intact, resistance could be far too high. To avoid any of the above problems when making wiring or terminal repairs, always follow the instructions for wiring and terminal repair. Schematic Symbols Page 883 Fluid - Differential: Fluid Type Specifications Differential Fluid Grade ................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................... GL-5 Viscosity .......................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................... 80W-90 Page 262 Transmission Range Switch (Park/Neutral - Position And Backup Lamp Switch) Page 990 Fuse Block: Application and ID Front and Rear View Page 429 Important: ^ The "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) mode is NOT the runout of time allowed to perform a specific procedure. It is the amount of time used to record each snapshot of information used for calculating "AVG" when in the "MIN MAX" mode. Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections The previous diagnostic procedure was written to detect intermittents using the DMM set to voltage. Whether using the current, voltage, or resistance setting to detect intermittents, it is necessary to properly connect the DMM to the circuit. Following are examples of the various methods of connecting the DMM to the circuit to be checked: ^ Backprobe both ends of the connector and either hold the leads in place while manipulating the connector or tape the leads to the harness for continuous monitoring while performing other operations or test driving. (Do not backprobe "Weather Pack (R)" type connectors.) ^ Disconnect the harness at both ends of the suspect circuit where it connects either to a component or to other harnesses. ^ Use J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit to connect the DMM to the circuit. ^ If the system being diagnosed has a specified pinout or breakout box, it may be used to simplify connecting the DMM to the circuit or for checking multiple circuits quickly. Intermittent and Poor Connections Most intermittence are caused by faulty electrical connections or wiring, although occasionally a sticking relay or solenoid can be a problem. Some items to check are: ^ Poor mating of connector halves, or terminals not fully seated in the connector body (backed out). ^ Dirt or corrosion on the terminals. The terminals must be clean and free of any foreign material which could impede proper terminal contact. ^ Damaged connector body, exposing the terminals to moisture and dirt, as well as not maintaining proper terminal orientation with the component or mating connector. ^ Improperly formed or damaged terminals. All connector terminals in problem circuits should be checked carefully to ensure good contact tension. Use a corresponding mating terminal to check for proper tension. ^ The J 35616-A Connector Test Adapter Kit must be used whenever a diagnostic procedure requests checking or probing a terminal. Using the adapter will ensure that no damage to the terminal will occur, as well as giving an idea of whether contact tension is sufficient. ^ Poor terminal to wire connection. Some conditions which fall under this description are poor crimps, poor solder joints, crimping over wire insulation rather than the wire itself, corrosion in the wire to terminal contact area, etc. ^ Wire insulation which is rubbed through, causing an intermittent short as the bare area touches other wiring or parts of the vehicle. ^ Wiring broken inside the insulation. This condition could cause a continuity check to show a good circuit, but if only one or two strands of a multi-strand type wire are intact, resistance could be far too high. To avoid any of the above problems when making wiring or terminal repairs, always follow the instructions for wiring and terminal repair. Schematic Symbols Page 1007 Malfunction Indicator Lamp: Testing and Inspection Data Link Connector Diagnosis Data Link Connector Diagnosis Circuit Description The provision for communicating with the control module is the Data Link Connector (DLC). It is usually located under the instrument panel. The DLC is used to connect to a scan tool. Some common uses of the scan tool are listed below: Identifying stored Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). - Clearing DTCs. - Performing output control tests. - Reading serial data. Battery power and ground is supplied for the scan tool through the DLC. The Class 2 serial data circuit to the DLC allows the PCM to communicate with the scan tool. The Class 2 serial data circuit is also used to communicate with the Electronic Brake Control Module (EBCM), and the Truck Body Control Module. Diagnostic Aids Some scan tools may require an external power supply. Make sure your scan tool is using the correct power feed. Ensure that the correct application (model year, carline, VIN code) has been selected on the scan tool. If communication still cannot be established, try the scan tool on another vehicle to ensure that the scan tool, or cables are not the cause of the condition. An intermittent may be caused by a poor connection, rubbed through wire insulation or a wire broken inside the insulation. Any circuitry, that is suspected as causing an intermittent complaint, should be thoroughly checked for the following conditions: Backed out terminals. Improper mating of terminals. - Broken locks. - Improperly formed or damaged terminals. - Poor terminals to wiring connection. - Physical damaged to the wiring harness. - Corrosion. Test Description Locations MIL ON - A/T Stuck In 3rd/Instrument Cluster Inoperative Ignition Switch: Customer Interest MIL ON - A/T Stuck In 3rd/Instrument Cluster Inoperative BULLETIN NUMBER: SB01-04-S002 ISSUE DATE: AUGUST 2001 GROUP: ELECTRICAL MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LAMP (MIL) ON, TRANSMISSION STUCK IN THIRD GEAR, INSTRUMENT CLUSTER INOPERATIVE (Replace Ignition Switch) AFFECTED VEHICLES 1997 - 2000 Hombre pickup with 4L60-E Automatic Transmission SERVICE INFORMATION Condition: Some customers may comment on one or more of the following conditions: The Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) is ON. The transmission is stuck in third gear. The instrument cluster is inoperative. Upon investigation, one or all of the diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) P0740, P0753, P0758, P0785, and P1860 may be set. Possible Cause: The most likely cause of this condition may be a loss of power to the transmission on circuit 1020. This loss of power may be caused by an open in the ignition switch. This condition may also be the result of an incorrect installation of an aftermarket electronic device such as a remote starter or alarm system. Correction: Follow the procedures in this bulletin for diagnosing if battery voltage is present at the fuse listed in the chart in step 1. Then follow the service procedures for diagnosing fault and repair as needed. 1. With the ignition switch in the RUN position, test for battery voltage at the appropriate fuse listed. 2. If battery voltage is present at the fuse, inspect circuit 1020 between the fuse and the transmission for possible opens. If battery voltage is not present at the fuse, replace the ignition switch using the ignition switch replacement procedure in the Steering Wheel and Column sub-section of the applicable Service Manual. 3. If the vehicle is equipped with an aftermarket electronic device (i.e., alarm or remote starter) and the DTCs are being set when the device is being used, verify that the appropriate fuse listed above is being supplied battery voltage during operation. If voltage is not present at this fuse, these DTCs will be set due to lack of power at the solenoids. This condition is most likely to occur with an incorrectly installed remote starting system. If this is the case, refer the customer to the installer of the system for corrections. Page 324 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to one end of the part of the circuit you wish to test. 3. Connect the other lead to the other end of the circuit. 4. If the self-powered test light glows, there is continuity. When using an ohmmeter, low or no resistance means good continuity. With A Test Light or Digital Multimeter (DMM) 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the load. 2. Connect a test light or voltmeter across the fuse terminals (be sure that the fuse is powered). 3. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the test light or DMM. 4. when the test light glows, or the DMM registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. With A Self-Powered Test Light or Ohmmeter 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the Battery and load. 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to the fuse terminal on the load side. 3. Connect the other lead to a known good ground. 4. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the self-powered test light or ohmmeter. 5. When the self-powered test light glows, or the ohmmeter registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. Fuses Powering Several Loads 1. Find the schematic in "Fuse Block Details," for the fuse that has blown. 2. Open the first connector or switch leading from the fuse to each load. 3. Replace the fuse. ^ If the fuse blows, the short is in the wiring leading to the first connector or switch. Use a test light or DMM. ^ If fuse does not blow, refer to next step. 4. Close each connector or switch until the fuse blows in order to find which circuit has the short. Connect test light or DMM at the connector to the suspect circuit (disconnected) rather than at the fuse terminals. Page 329 Engine Temperature Sensor: Description and Operation Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor (3) is a thermistor (a resistor which changes value based on temperature) mounted in the engine coolant stream. Low coolant temperature produces a high resistance (100,000 ohms at -40°C/-40°F), while high temperature causes low resistance (70 ohms at 130°C/266°F). The PCM supplies a 5 volt signal to the ECT sensor through a resistor in the PCM and monitors the terminal voltage. Since this forms a series circuit to ground through the ECT sensor, high sensor resistance (low temperature) will result in high PCM terminal voltage. When the resistance of the ECT sensor is low (high temperature), the terminal voltage will be drawn lower. This terminal voltage indicates engine coolant temperature to the PCM. A hard fault in the ECT sensor circuit should set either a DTC P0117 or P0118. Remember, these DTCs indicate a malfunction in the engine coolant temperature circuit, so proper use of the DTC table may lead to either repairing a wiring problem or replacing the sensor, to properly repair a problem. Page 983 FUSE 6, HTR A/C, FUSE 12, BRAKE Park/Neutral Position Switch - Connector Stuck Transmission Position Switch/Sensor: Customer Interest Park/Neutral Position Switch - Connector Stuck BULLETIN NUMBER: SB98-05-L004 ISSUE DATE: NOVEMBER 1998 GROUP: TRANSMISSION 1997-98 HOMBRE (TH) PARK/NEUTRAL POSITION SWITCH CONNECTOR CANNOT BE REMOVED (REPLACE SWITCH AND CONNECTORS) AFFECTED VEHICLES 1997-98 Hombre (TH) models equipped with 4L60-E automatic transmission. SERVICE INFORMATION Condition: Technicians may have difficulty removing the connectors from the Park/Neutral Position Switch, usually when trying to remove the switch during transmission service. In rare cases, customers may also report switch related electrical conditions, such as improper or no shift indication, or no backup light operation. Possible Cause: High ambient heat may cause the sealing compound in the switch to melt and flow into the connectors, sealing the connectors to the switch. This normally causes no customer conditions, but may cause an open circuit in rare cases. Correction: In many cases, the switch can be removed and reinstalled without removing the connectors. If the switch is being removed as part of transmission service, and there are no switch related conditions, the switch can simply be reinstalled. Some applications have a mounting bolt behind the connectors. The switch will have to be removed and will probably be damaged in the process. The connector pigtails use wires, which are all the same color. Use the old connector as a pattern to insure that the new wires are connected to the harness correctly. IMPORTANT This switch is in a wet area. It is very important to solder the wires and use heat-shrink tubing to insure watertight connections. PARTS INFORMATION * Reusable. Replace if necessary. WARRANTY CLAIM INFORMATION Use the published labor operation. Page 485 Vehicle Speed Sensor: Diagnostic Aids Additional Information NOTE: Turn OFF power to the test circuit before attempting in-circuit resistance measurements to prevent false readings or damage to the DMM. Do not use the DMM to measure resistance through a solid state module. Continuity tests that work well for detecting intermittent shorts to ground can be performed by setting the DMM to "ohms," then pressing the "PEAK MIN MAX" button. An audible tone will be heard whenever the DMM detects continuity for at least 1 millisecond. The J 39200 instruction Manual is a good source of information and should be read thoroughly upon receipt of the DMM as well as kept on hand for reference during new procedures. Basic Knowledge Required Without a basic knowledge of electricity, it will be difficult to use the diagnostic procedures contained in this section. You should understand the basic theory of electricity and know the meaning of voltage, current (amps) and resistance (Ohms). You should understand what happens in a circuit with an open or a shorted wire. You should be able to read and understand a wiring diagram. The following four-step troubleshooting procedure is recommended: Step 1: Check the Problem Perform a System Check to determine a symptom. Don't waste time fixing part of the problem! Do not begin disassembly or testing until you have narrowed down the possible causes. Step 2: Read the Electrical Schematic Study the schematic. Read the Circuit Operation text if you do not understand how the circuit should work. Check circuits that share wiring with the problem circuit (Shared circuits are shown on Power Distribution, Ground Distribution, Fuse Block Details, and Light Switch Details pages.) Try to operate the shared circuits. If the shared circuits work, then the shared wiring is OK. The cause must be within the wiring used only by the problem circuit. If several circuits fail at the same time, chances are the power (fuse) or ground circuit is faulty. Step 3: Find the Fault and Repair ^ Narrow down the possible causes. ^ Use the Troubleshooting Hints. ^ Make the necessary measurements or checks as given in the System Diagnosis. ^ Before replacing a component, check power, signal and ground wires at the component harness connector. If the checks and connections are OK, the most probable cause is component failure. Step 4: Test the Repair Repeat the System Check to verify that the fault has been corrected and that no other faults were induced during the repair. Example: A customer brings in a vehicle and says that the High beams do not work. Step 1: Perform a System Check on the Headlamp Circuit You may discover that both Low beams operate. In "High," you may notice that the High Beam Indicator comes on. but neither High beam operates. Page 342 Page 201 This test checks for voltage being lost along a wire, or through a connection or switch. 1. Connect the positive lead of a DMM to the end of the wire (or to one side of the connection or switch) which is closer to the Battery. 2. Connect the negative lead to the other end of the wire (or the other side of the connection or switch). 3. Operate the circuit. 4. The DMM will show the difference in voltage between the two points. Testing For Voltage 1. Connect one lead of a test light to a known good ground. When using a DMM, be sure the voltmeter's negative lead is connected to ground. 2. Connect the other lead of the test light or voltmeter to a selected test point (connector or terminal). 3. If the test light illuminates, there is voltage present. When using a DMM, note the voltage reading. Testing For Continuity 1. Remove the fuse to the circuit involved. Locations Page 239 Dimmer Switch: Service and Repair Remove or Disconnect ^ Make sure the headlamp switch is in the OFF position. ^ Make sure the ignition switch is in the LOOK position. 1. Instrument panel accessory trim plate. 2. Electrical connector. 3. Screws that retain the headlamp switch panel to the instrument panel accessory trim plate. 4. Headlamp switch panel from the instrument panel accessory trim plate. 5. Instrument panel dimmer switch from the headlamp switch panel. Install or Connect 1. Instrument panel dimmer switch to the headlamp switch panel. 2. Headlamp switch panel to the instrument panel accessory trim plate. 3. Screws that retain the headlamp switch panel to the instrument cluster bezel. Tighten ^ Screws to 1 N.m (9 lb in). 4. Electrical connector. 5. Instrument panel accessory trim plate. Page 493 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to one end of the part of the circuit you wish to test. 3. Connect the other lead to the other end of the circuit. 4. If the self-powered test light glows, there is continuity. When using an ohmmeter, low or no resistance means good continuity. With A Test Light or Digital Multimeter (DMM) 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the load. 2. Connect a test light or voltmeter across the fuse terminals (be sure that the fuse is powered). 3. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the test light or DMM. 4. when the test light glows, or the DMM registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. With A Self-Powered Test Light or Ohmmeter 1. Remove the blown fuse and disconnect the Battery and load. 2. Connect one lead of a self-powered test light or ohmmeter to the fuse terminal on the load side. 3. Connect the other lead to a known good ground. 4. Beginning near the Fuse Block, wiggle the harness from side to side. Continue this at convenient points (about 6 inches apart) while watching the self-powered test light or ohmmeter. 5. When the self-powered test light glows, or the ohmmeter registers, there is a short to ground in the wiring near that point. Fuses Powering Several Loads 1. Find the schematic in "Fuse Block Details," for the fuse that has blown. 2. Open the first connector or switch leading from the fuse to each load. 3. Replace the fuse. ^ If the fuse blows, the short is in the wiring leading to the first connector or switch. Use a test light or DMM. ^ If fuse does not blow, refer to next step. 4. Close each connector or switch until the fuse blows in order to find which circuit has the short. Connect test light or DMM at the connector to the suspect circuit (disconnected) rather than at the fuse terminals. Page 490 Page 633 Deformation is caused by probing the mating side of a connector terminal without the proper adapter, improperly joining the connector halves or repeatedly separating and joining the connector halves. Deformation, usually to the female terminal contact tang, can result in poor terminal contact, causing an open or intermittently open circuit. Follow the procedure below to check terminal contact. 1. Separate the connector halves. 2. Inspect the connector halves for contamination. Contamination will result in a white or green build-up within the connector body or between terminals, causing high terminal resistance, intermittent contact, or an open circuit. An underhood or underbody connector that shows signs of contamination should be replaced in its entirety: terminals, seals, and connector body. 3. Using an equivalent male terminal from the J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit, check the retention force of the female terminal in question by inserting and removing the male terminal to the female terminal in the connector body. Good terminal contact will require a certain amount of force to separate the terminals. 4. Using an equivalent female terminal from the J 38125-A Terminal Repair Kit, compare the retention force of this terminal to the female terminal in question by joining and separating the male terminal to the good female terminal, and then joining and separating the male terminal to the female terminal in question. If the retention force is significantly different between the two female terminals, replace the female terminal in question. If a visual (physical) check does not reveal the cause of the problem, the vehicle may be able to be driven with a DMM connected to the suspected circuit An abnormal voltage reading when the problem occurs indicates the problem may be in that circuit. Detecting Electrical Intermittents Use the following procedure to detect intermittent terminal contact or a broken wire with an intermittent connection inside the insulation. The J 39200 Digital Multimeter (DMM) has the ability to monitor current, resistance, or voltage while recording the minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) values measured. The DMM can also be set to display the average (AVG) value measured. When diagnosing circuits that have voltage applied, use the voltage setting to monitor a connector (or length of a circuit) which is suspected of having an intermittent connection but is currently operating normally. 1. Connect the J 39200 Digital Multimeter to both sides of a suspect connector (still connected) or from one end of a suspect circuit to the other. This will continuously monitor the terminal contacts or length of wire being checked. Refer to "Digital Multimeter (DMM) Connections" in this section for examples of the various methods for connecting the DMM to the circuit 2. Set the DMM for voltage. Since the "MIN MAX" mode does not use auto ranging, manually select the voltage range necessary before proceeding. 3. Press the "MIN MAX" button. The DMM should read "100 ms RECORD" (100 millisecond record) and emit a 1/4 second beep. The DMM is now ready to record and will generate an audible tone for any change in voltage. At this point, you may wish to press the "PEAK MIN MAX" button, which will record any voltage variations that occur for at least 1 millisecond. 4. Try to simulate the condition that is potentially causing an intermittent connection, either by wiggling connections or wiring, test driving or performing other operations. If an open or resistance is created, a voltage will be present and the DMM will emit a tone for as long as the open or resistance exists. Any change in voltage will cause the DMM to emit a tone for no less than 1/4 second. (Listening for a tone while manipulating wiring is very helpful for narrowing down an intermittent connection.) Use the MIN and MAX values when the DMM is out of sight or sound range, in noisy areas or for test driving when it may not be possible to monitor the DMM. To check the MIN and MAX recorded voltages press "MIN MAX" once for MAX and twice for MIN. A variation between MIN and MAX recorded voltages (unless nearly 0 volts) suggests an intermittent open or that resistance exists and should be repaired as necessary. Page 762 Spark Plug: Service and Repair CAUTION - Allow the engine to cool before removing the spark plugs. Attempting to remove the plugs from a hot engine may cause the plug to seize, causing damage to the cylinder head threads. - Clean the spark plug recess area before removing the plug. Failure to do so can result in engine damage due to dirt or foreign material entering the cylinder head or contamination of the cylinder head threads. Contaminated threads may prevent proper seating of a new plug. - Do not install plugs that are either hotter or colder than the heat range specified. Using plugs of the wrong heat range can severely damage the engine. REMOVE OR DISCONNECT - Make sure the ignition switch is OFF. CAUTION: Twist the spark plug boot one-half turn to release it. Pull on the spark plug boot only. Do not pull on the wire or the spark plug lead may be damaged. 1. Spark plug wires and boots. - Label the plug wires. CAUTION: Be sure to use J 39358 or equivalent spark plug socket Failure to do so could cause cracking of the insulator and arcing inside the plug, resulting in engine misfire. 2. Spark plugs using J 39358 or equivalent. Inspect Each spark plug for wear and gap. - Spark plugs should be gapped to 0.060 inch. INSTALL OR CONNECT CAUTION: Make sure each sparkplug threads smoothly into the cylinder head and is fully seated. Cross-threading or falling to fully seat spark plugs can cause overheating of the plugs, exhaust blow-by, or thread damage. 1. Spark plugs. Tighten Spark plugs to 30 Nm (22 lb. ft.) in a new cylinder head and 20 Nm (14 lb. ft.) in a used head. 2. Wire and boot assemblies. Refer to Spark Plug Wiring and Boots for precautions. Page 413 Double Diaphragm Motors can be operated by vacuum in two directions. When there is no vacuum, the motor is in the center "AT REST" position. Some Vacuum Motors such as the Servo Motor in the Cruise Control can position the actuating arm at any position between fully extended and fully retracted. The servo is operated by a control valve that applies varying amounts of vacuum to the motor. The higher the vacuum level, the greater the retraction of the motor arm. Servo Motors work like the two position motors; the only difference is in the way the vacuum is applied. Servo Motors are generally larger and provide a calibrated control. Page 433 This test checks for voltage being lost along a wire, or through a connection or switch. 1. Connect the positive lead of a DMM to the end of the wire (or to one side of the connection or switch) which is closer to the Battery. 2. Connect the negative lead to the other end of the wire (or the other side of the connection or switch). 3. Operate the circuit. 4. The DMM will show the difference in voltage between the two points. Testing For Voltage 1. Connect one lead of a test light to a known good ground. When using a DMM, be sure the voltmeter's negative lead is connected to ground. 2. Connect the other lead of the test light or voltmeter to a selected test point (connector or terminal). 3. If the test light illuminates, there is voltage present. When using a DMM, note the voltage reading. Testing For Continuity 1. Remove the fuse to the circuit involved. Page 383 Page 831 8. Compressor and condenser hose from condenser. 9. O-ring seal. 10. Compressor and condenser hose from evaporator (2.2L only). - Cap or plug all open connections. Page 838 3. Install the hose block to the compressor. Ensure that the sealing washers are seated within the compressor's machined surfaces. 4. Hold the block in place and tighten the attachment bolt by hand. Tighten Tighten the bolt to 33 N.m (24 lb ft). Page 951 1. Connect the yellow 2-way connector at the base of the steering column. 2. Install the Connector Position Assurance (CPA) to the yellow 2-way connector. 3. Install LH Knee bolster. 4. Install LH I/P sound insulator. 5. Install the AIR BAG fuse to the fuse block. 6. Staying well away from the supplemental restraint steering wheel inflator module turn the ignition switch to the RUN position. a. The AIR BAG warning lamp will flash seven times. b. The AIR BAG warning lamp will then turn OFF. 7. Perform the SRS Diagnostic System Check if the AIR BAG warning lamp does not operate as described. Page 497 Page 809 Install or Connect 1. Heater inlet hose to heater core. 2. Heater inlet hose to heater hose fitting. 3. Heater inlet hose bracket bolt. Tighten Bolt to 10 N.m (88 lb in). 4. He