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Page 1136 Power Distribution Page 608 Transmission Range Switch: Specifications Transmission Range Switch (ATX) Transmission Range Switch ............................................................................................................................................................ 44-64 Nm (33-47 lb ft) Page 1086 ^ Fuse Cooling Fan ^ Fuse Air Bag ^ Fuse ABS ^ Ignition Switch Power Distribution Circuit Breaker Heater Page 1393 Steering Input Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Drive at the speed where the concern occurs, while making sweeping turns in both directions. ^ If the concern goes away or gets worse, the wheel bearings, hubs, U-joints (contained in the axles of 4WD applications), and tire tread wear are all possible sources. ^ Proceed as necessary. Brake Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Warm the brakes by slowing the vehicle a few times from 80-32 km/h (50-20 mph) using light braking applications. At highway speeds of 89-97 km/h (50-60 mph), apply the brake using a light pedal force. ^ Accelerate to 89-97 km/h (55-60 mph). ^ Lightly apply the brakes and slow the vehicle to 30 km/h (20 mph). ^ A brake vibration noise can be felt in the steering wheel, seat or brake pedal. A brake noise can be heard upon brake application and diminish when the brake is release. Road Test Over Bumps To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Drive the vehicle over a bump or rough surface one wheel at a time to determine if the noise is coming from the front or the back and the left or the right side of the vehicle. ^ Proceed as necessary. Neutral Engine Run-up (NERU) Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ In stall a tachometer. ^ Increase the engine rpm up from an idle to approximately 4000 rpm while in PARK on front wheel drive vehicles with automatic transmissions, or NEUTRAL for all other vehicles. Note the engine rpm and, if possible, determine the vibration frequency. ^ Attempt to identify what part of the vehicle the concern is coming from. ^ Attempt to identify the source of the concern. ^ Proceed as necessary. Drive Engine Run-up (DERU) Load Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ WARNING: Block the front and rear wheels, and apply the parking brake and the service brake, or injury to personnel can result. ^ CAUTION: Do not carry out the Engine Load Test for more than five seconds or damage to the transmission or transaxle can result. Block the front and rear wheels. ^ Apply the parking brake and the service brake. ^ Install a tachometer. Steering Wheel - Shake/Vibration At Idle Engine Mount: All Technical Service Bulletins Steering Wheel - Shake/Vibration At Idle Article No. 95-12-4 06/19/95 VIBRATION - STEERING WHEEL SHAKE AT IDLE - FROM JOB # 1/91 THROUGH 11/1/94 FORD 1991-1995 ESCORT LINCOLN-MERCURY 1991-95 TRACER ISSUE: The steering wheel may vibrate/shake during idle, with the transmission in gear, on some vehicles. This concern is induced by large A/C system and charging system loads. These loads are transferred through the engine and body causing the steering wheel to vibrate while in gear and at idle. Page 715 Page 442 Sample System Diagram System Diagrams Components that work together are shown together in a system/subsystem diagram or set of diagrams. The system feed (circuit breaker, fuse, etc.) is shown at the top of a diagram page. All wires, connectors, components, and splices are shown in the same manner that the current flows, ending at the ground at the bottom of a diagram page. Circuits that go from one diagram page to another will be marked with large arrow heads. Page 1073 Power Distribution Fuse ABS Fuse ABS - protects the following circuits: ^ Anti-Lock Brake System Main Relay Page 738 Page 701 Page 103 Engine Electrical Connector Pin Usage Page 373 HO2S Test Schematic Page 1216 Page 1243 Page 204 Clutch Switch: Service and Repair 1. Remove bracket mounting screw(s). 2. Disconnect electrical connector, then remove switch and bracket assembly. 3. Remove switch from bracket. 4. Reverse procedure to install. Page 955 Brake Bleeding: Service and Repair Manual Bleeding - Ensure all dirt and contaminants are removed from master cylinder area prior to removing reservoir cap. - To prevent air from the pressure tank getting into the lines, do not shake the tank while air is being added to the tank or after it has been pressurized. Set the tank in the required location, bring the air hose to the tank, and do not move it during the bleeding operation. The tank should be kept at least one-third full. - If air does get into the fluid, releasing the pressure will cause the bubbles to increase in size, rise to the top of the fluid, and escape. Pressure should not be greater than about 35 psi. On vehicles equipped with plastic reservoirs, do not exceed 25 psi during bleeding pressure. - When bleeding without pressure, open the bleed valve three-quarters of a turn, depress the pedal a full stroke, then allow the pedal to return slowly to its released position. It is suggested that after the pedal has been depressed to the end of its stroke, the bleeder valve should be closed before the start of the return stroke. Reduce the vacuum in the power unit to zero by pumping the brake pedal several times with the engine OFF before starting to bleed the system. Pressure bleeding, of course, eliminates the need for pedal pumping. - Discard drained or bled brake fluid. Care should be taken not to spill brake fluid, since this can damage the finish of the car. Flushing is essential if there is water, mineral oil or other contaminants in the lines, and whenever new parts are installed in the hydraulic system. Fluid contamination is usually indicated by swollen and deteriorated cups and other rubber parts. - Bleeding is necessary on all four wheels if air has entered the system because of low fluid level, or the line or lines have been disconnected. If a line is disconnected at any one wheel cylinder, that cylinder only need be bled. Of course, on brake reline jobs, bleeding is advisable to remove any air or contaminants. - Master cylinders equipped with bleeder valves should be bled first before the wheel cylinders are bled. In all cases where a master cylinder has been overhauled, it must be bled. Where there is no bleeder valve, this can be done by leaving the lines loose, actuating the brake pedal to expel the air and then tightening the lines. - After overhauling a dual master cylinder, it is advisable to bleed the cylinder before installing it on the car. The reason for this recommendation is that air may be trapped between the master cylinder pistons. Page 1688 Page 934 Install a Service Filter Kit in the refrigerant system prior to installing the replacement compressor. Refer to the following Service Procedure for details. OTHER APPLICABLE ARTICLES: NONE SUPERSEDES: 96-15-5 WARRANTY STATUS: Eligible Under The Provisions Of Bumper To Bumper Warranty Coverage For 1992-99 Models And 1991 Lincolns, Basic Warranty Coverage For All Other Models And Major Component Warranty Coverage For All Other Lincoins OPERATION DESCRIPTION TIME 981205A Kit Installation 1.2 Hrs. 981205B Extra Time For Refrigerant 0.4 Hr. (R-12) Recovery DEALER CODING CONDITION BASIC PART NO. CODE 19703 49 OASIS CODES: 208000, 208999 Service Procedure THIS PROCEDURE IS OPTIONAL IF THE SYSTEM IS FLUSHED USING THE ROTUNDA A/C FLUSHER. CAUTION THIS FILTERING PROCEDURE MAY BE USED FOR EITHER R-12 OR R-134a REFRIGERANT SYSTEMS. BECAUSE THE TWO (2) SYSTEMS USE DIFFERENT REFRIGERANT OILS AND BECAUSE THE COMPRESSOR COULD BE DAMAGED IF THE WRONG OIL IS USED, SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION IS VERY IMPORTANT. BE SURE SYSTEM IS CORRECTLY IDENTIFIED BEFORE STARTING THE FILTERING PROCEDURE. Each Service Filter Kit includes the following items: ^ One (1) Pancake Filter (to be installed in the liquid line between the condenser and the orifice tube) ^ One (1) Instruction Sheet NOTE ON 1993-94 RANGER/EXPLORER VEHICLES, TECHNICIANS MAY EXPERIENCE DIFFICULTY WHEN CONNECTING THE PANCAKE FILTER HOSE FITTINGS TO THE EVAPORATOR INLET WITH THE ORIFICE TUBE INSTALLED. REMOVE THE OFFICE TUBE AND RUN THE SYSTEM FOR 1 HOUR AS DESCRIBED IN THE FILTERING PROCEDURE. REINSTALL THE ORIFICE TUBE AFTER FILTERING IS COMPLETE. CAUTION FOLLOW ALL REFRIGERANT SYSTEM SAFETY AND SERVICE PRECAUTIONS OUTLINED IN THE APPROPRIATE SERVICE OR WORKSHOP MANUAL. 1. Before removing any refrigerant system components, recover the refrigerant from the system following the recycling methods outlined In the appropriate Service/Workshop Manual. 2. Remove the suction accumulator/drier assembly and drain the oil into a calibrated container. 3. Install a new suction accumulator/drier and add new refrigerant oil to replace the old oil. The quantity of the new oil to be added is the amount to match that drained from the old accumulator plus 60 mL (2 oz). Refer to the Dealer Master Parts Catalog for the correct suction accumulator/drier part number. CAUTION REMEMBER TO USE MOTORCRAFT YN-9-A REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR OIL WITH R-12 SYSTEMS AND MOTORCRAFT YN-12-C REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR OIL WITH R-134a SYSTEMS. FAILURE TO USE THE CORRECT REFRIGERANT OIL MAY RESULT IN DAMAGE TO SYSTEM COMPONENTS. 4. Install a new orifice tube. Refer to the Dealer Master Parts Catalog for the correct orifice tube part number. If the orifice tube in the vehicle is located in the liquid line between the condenser and the evaporator, replace the liquid line assembly. Page 898 Fluid - A/T: Testing and Inspection FLUID CHECK 1. Start engine and allow transaxle to reach normal operating temperature. 2. With engine idling and parking brake applied, move selector lever through all ranges, then return to Park position. 3. With engine idling, remove dipstick and check fluid level. Fluid level should be between full and low marks. 4. Add specified automatic transaxle fluid as necessary to bring level within specifications. Page 1289 Page 1541 Page 733 Engine - Lean Driveability Symptoms Volume Air Flow (VAF) Sensor: All Technical Service Bulletins Engine - Lean Driveability Symptoms Article No. 98-23-10 11/23/98 MASS AIR FLOW (MAF) - SENSOR CONTAMINATION - SERVICE TIP FORD: 1990-97 THUNDERBIRD 1990-99 MUSTANG, TAURUS SHO 1991-99 CROWN VICTORIA, ESCORT, TAURUS 1992-94 TEMPO 1993-97 PROBE 1995-99 CONTOUR LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1990-97 COUGAR 1991-99 CONTINENTAL, GRAND MARQUIS, SABLE, TOWN CAR, TRACER 1992-94 TOPAZ 1993-98 MARK VIII 1995-99 MYSTIQUE LIGHT TRUCK: 1990 BRONCO II 1990-97 AEROSTAR 1990-99 RANGER 1991-99 EXPLORER 1994-96 BRONCO 1994-97 F SUPER DUTY, F-250 HD 1994-99 ECONOLINE, F-150, F-250 LD, F-350 1995-99 WINDSTAR 1997-99 EXPEDITION, MOUNTAINEER 1998-99 NAVIGATOR 1999 F-250 HD, SUPER DUTY F SERIES ISSUE This TSB article is a diagnostic procedure to address vehicles that exhibit lean driveability symptoms and may or may not have any Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) stored in memory. ACTION Follow the diagnostic procedures described in the following Service Tip. The revised diagnostic procedure is a more accurate means of diagnosing the symptoms. SERVICE TIP MASS AIR FLOW (MAF) DISCUSSION MAF sensors can get contaminated from a variety of sources: dirt, oil, silicon, spider webs, potting compound from the sensor itself, etc. When a MAF sensor gets contaminated, it skews the transfer function such that the sensor over-estimates air flow at idle (causes the fuel system to go rich) and under-estimates air flow at high air flows (causes fuel system to go lean). This means Long Term Fuel Trims will learn lean (negative) corrections at idle and learn rich (positive) corrections at higher air flows. If vehicle is driven at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) or high loads, the fuel system normally goes open loop rich to provide maximum power. If the MAF sensor is contaminated, the fuel system will actually be lean because of under-estimated air flow. During open loop fuel operation, the vehicle applies Long Term Fuel Trim corrections that have been learned during closed loop operation. These corrections are often lean corrections learned at lower air flows. This combination of under-estimated air flow and lean fuel trim corrections can result in spark knock/detonation and lack of power concerns at WOT and high loads. One of the indicators for diagnosing this condition is barometric pressure. Barometric pressure (BARO) is inferred by the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) software at part throttle and WOT (there is no actual BARO sensor on MAF-equipped vehicles, except for the 3.8L Supercharged engine). At high air flows, a contaminated MAF sensor will under-estimate air flow coming into the engine, hence the PCM infers that the vehicle is operating at a higher altitude. The BARO reading is stored in Keep Alive Memory (KAM) after it is updated. Other indicators are Long Term Fuel Trim and MAF Page 990 Power Distribution Brakes - Roughness During Application Tires: All Technical Service Bulletins Brakes - Roughness During Application Article No. 95-6-2 03/27/95 BRAKES - ROUGHNESS CONCERN DURING BRAKE APPLICATION FORD: 1982-95 CROWN VICTORIA, ESCORT, MUSTANG, THUNDERBIRD 1984-94 TEMPO 1986-95 TAURUS 1988-93 FESTIVA 1989-95 PROBE 1994-95 ASPIRE 1995 CONTOUR LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1982-86 CAPRI 1982-87 LYNX 1982-95 CONTINENTAL, COUGAR, GRAND MARQUIS, TOWN CAR 1984-92 MARK VII 1984-94 TOPAZ 1986-95 SABLE 1987-89 TRACER 1991-94 CAPRI 1991-95 TRACER 1993-95 MARK VIII 1995 MYSTIQUE MERKUR: 1985-88 XR4TI 1988-89 SCORPIO ISSUE: Early replacement of the brake components, rotors and pads due to brake roughness concern, is lowering customer's view of quality. The cause of brake roughness is due to small changes in braking torque when the brake is applied. The following are the major reasons for the brake torque variation: ^ Runout of disc rotor ^ Rusted rotor surface ^ Warped rotor due to improper wheel lug nut tightening (torque too high or uneven) ^ Varied rotor thickness around the disk ^ Transferred patches of lining material on the rotor surface ^ Uneven tire wear and balance ACTION: Diagnose brake roughness by referring to the following procedure for service details. SERVICE PROCEDURE/DIAGNOSIS STEPS NOTE: BEGIN WITH STEP 1 AND FINISH WITH STEP 6. 1. Check the Condition of Tires and Their Balance Sometimes the brake roughness concern is not brake roughness at all. In fact, some complaints are due to the out-of-round and out-of-balance tires or broken steel cord (for steel belted radial tires) in the tires. The effects of these problems show up at all conditions of driving, but may seem worse when Page 724 Page 553 17. Remove the two ignition coil mounting bracket bolts and remove the ignition coil mounting bracket. 18. Remove the A/C line bracket nut and position the A/C line aside. 19. Remove the four radiator bracket bolts and position the radiator to the rear. 20. Remove the three LH front air bag sensor and bracket bolts. NOTE: Note the routing of the LH front air bag wiring to ease installation. 21. Remove the LH front air bag sensor and bracket. Installation To install, reverse the removal procedure. Verify that the air bag warning indicator is operative. Locations Transmission Speed Sensor: Locations Engine View The Turbine Speed Sensor is located at the LH side of the engine, on top of the transaxle. Page 1417 Page 1214 Page 883 Coolant: Technical Service Bulletins Recycled Engine Coolant - Service Tips Article No. 95-18-2 09/11/95 ^ COOLANT - USE OF RECYCLED ENGINE, COOLANT - SERVICE TIP ^ COOLING SYSTEM - USE OF RECYCLED ENGINE, COOLANT - SERVICE TIP FORD: 1980 and after CROWN VICTORIA, MUSTANG, THUNDERBIRD 1981 and after ESCORT 1982-88 EXP 1984-94 TEMPO 1986 and after TAURUS 1988-93 FESTIVA 1989 and after PROBE 1994 and after ASPIRE 1995 and after CONTOUR LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1980 and after CONTINENTAL, COUGAR, GRAND MARQUIS, TOWN CAR 1981-86 CAPRI 1981-87 LYNX 1984-92 MARK VII 1984-94 TOPAZ 1986 and after SABLE 1987-89 TRACER 1991-94 CAPRI 1991 and after TRACER 1993 and after MARK VIII 1995 and after MYSTIQUE MERKUR: 1985-89 XR4TI 1988-89 SCORPIO LIGHT TRUCK: 1980 and after F-150-350 SERIES 1981 and after ECONOLINE 1982 and after BRONCO 1983 and after RANGER 1984-90 BRONCO II 1986 and after AEROSTAR 1988 and after F SUPER DUTY 1991 and after EXPLORER 1993 and after VILLAGER 1995 and after WINDSTAR This TSB is being republished in its entirety to include warranty information when using recycled coolant ISSUE: Ford Motor Company authorizes the use of recycled engine coolant that, when properly processed and reinhibited, meets Ford specification ESE-M97B44-A. At this time, the Rotunda Coolant Recycler (181-00003) process is the only approved coolant recycling method available through Ford that is capable of producing recycled engine coolant that meets Ford specification ESE-M97B44-A. ACTION: Refer to the following Service Procedure for coolant processing and reinhibiting using Rotunda Coolant Recycler (181-00003). NOTE: WHILE TESTING SHOWS THAT RECYCLED ENGINE COOLANT CAN PROVIDE ACCEPTABLE PERFORMANCE, THE COOLANT PRODUCED FROM ROTUNDA EQUIPMENT IS INTENDED FOR USE WITHIN DEALERSHIPS ON WARRANTY AND CUSTOMER PAY REPAIRS ONLY AND NOT INTENDED FOR RETAIL SALE. THERE ARE REGULATORY, PACKAGING AND LABELING CONCERNS Page 578 Ignition Switch: Testing and Inspection Ignition Switch - Component Testing Procedure Ignition Switch - Terminal Locations Ignition Switch - Schematic Page 254 Turn Signal Switch: Testing and Inspection Multi-Function Switch - Component Testing Procedure Page 234 Multi-Function Switch Specifications Power Steering Pressure Switch: Specifications Power Steering Pressure Switch ........................................................................................................................................................ 17-23 Nm (12-17 lb ft) Page 1323 Comprehensive Noise/Vibration/Harshness Procedure Technical Service Bulletin # 99-11-1 Date: 990614 Comprehensive Noise/Vibration/Harshness Procedure Article No. 99-11-1 06/14/99 ^ NOISE - TSB SPECIAL FOR NOISE/VIBRATION/HARSHNESS ^ VIBRATION - TSB SPECIAL FOR NOISE/VIBRATION/HARSHNESS FORD: 1995-1997 PROBE, THUNDERBIRD 1995-1999 CONTOUR, CROWN VICTORIA, ESCORT, MUSTANG, TAURUS LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1995-1997 COUGAR 1995-1998 MARK VIII 1995-1999 CONTINENTAL, GRAND MARQUIS, MYSTIQUE, SABLE, TOWN CAR, TRACER 1999 COUGAR 2000 LS LIGHT TRUCK: 1995-1997 F SUPER DUTY, F-250 HD, F-350 1995-1999 ECONOLINE, EXPLORER, F-150, F-250 LD, RANGER, VILLAGER, WINDSTAR 1997-1999 EXPEDITION, MOUNTAINEER 1998-1999 NAVIGATOR 1999 SUPER DUTY F SERIES ISSUE This TSB article is being published as a comprehensive Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) diagnostic procedure. This procedure will also be in 2000 model year and future Workshop Manuals in the NVH Section. ACTION Utilize the flowchart diagrams to work a problem from SYMPTOM to SYSTEM to COMPONENT to CAUSE. The tools and techniques section is expanded to include ALL NVH diagnostic "tools". There are expanded SYMPTOM CHARTS to assist with problem resolution. A revised NVH course is available through regional training centers. The course is "NVH Principals and Diagnostics", course code # 30s03t0. This course utilizes the same techniques that are in the revised diagnostic procedure. Refer to the Noise, Vibration and Harshness Work Shop Manual Section that is included. OTHER APPLICABLE ARTICLES: NONE WARRANTY STATUS: INFORMATION ONLY OASIS CODES: 497000, 597997, 701000, 702000, 703000 SECTION 100-04 Noise, Vibration and Harshness VEHICLE APPLICATION: Noise, Vibration and Harshness CONTENTS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) Acceptable Noise, Vibration and Harshness Diagnostic Theory Diagnostic Process Glossary of Terms Tools and Techniques DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) Page 300 BARO Sensor: Description and Operation PURPOSE The Barometric Pressure (BARO) sensor detects changes in atmospheric pressure and signals the Powertrain Control Module. This information is used to adjust certain operating parameters of the engine. Page 1026 Power Distribution Page 1492 Steering Input Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Drive at the speed where the concern occurs, while making sweeping turns in both directions. ^ If the concern goes away or gets worse, the wheel bearings, hubs, U-joints (contained in the axles of 4WD applications), and tire tread wear are all possible sources. ^ Proceed as necessary. Brake Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Warm the brakes by slowing the vehicle a few times from 80-32 km/h (50-20 mph) using light braking applications. At highway speeds of 89-97 km/h (50-60 mph), apply the brake using a light pedal force. ^ Accelerate to 89-97 km/h (55-60 mph). ^ Lightly apply the brakes and slow the vehicle to 30 km/h (20 mph). ^ A brake vibration noise can be felt in the steering wheel, seat or brake pedal. A brake noise can be heard upon brake application and diminish when the brake is release. Road Test Over Bumps To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Drive the vehicle over a bump or rough surface one wheel at a time to determine if the noise is coming from the front or the back and the left or the right side of the vehicle. ^ Proceed as necessary. Neutral Engine Run-up (NERU) Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ In stall a tachometer. ^ Increase the engine rpm up from an idle to approximately 4000 rpm while in PARK on front wheel drive vehicles with automatic transmissions, or NEUTRAL for all other vehicles. Note the engine rpm and, if possible, determine the vibration frequency. ^ Attempt to identify what part of the vehicle the concern is coming from. ^ Attempt to identify the source of the concern. ^ Proceed as necessary. Drive Engine Run-up (DERU) Load Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ WARNING: Block the front and rear wheels, and apply the parking brake and the service brake, or injury to personnel can result. ^ CAUTION: Do not carry out the Engine Load Test for more than five seconds or damage to the transmission or transaxle can result. Block the front and rear wheels. ^ Apply the parking brake and the service brake. ^ Install a tachometer. Page 989 Power Distribution Fuse HEAD Fuse HEAD - protects the following circuits: ^ Headlamps ^ Daytime Running Lamps Page 1522 Page 1565 ^ The pinion gear depth is correct. Decrease the differential ring gear backlash. Tire Wear Patterns & Frequency Calculations Wheel and tire NVH concerns are directly related to vehicle speed and are not generally affected by acceleration, coasting or decelerating. Also, out-of-balance wheel and tires can vibrate at more than one speed. A vibration that is affected by the engine rpm or is eliminated by placing the transmission in NEUTRAL is not related to the tire and wheel. As a general rule, tire and wheel vibrations felt in the steering wheel are related to the front tire and wheel assemblies. Vibrations felt in the seat or floor are related to the rear tire and wheel assemblies. This can initially isolate a concern to the front or rear. Careful attention must be paid to the tire and wheels. There are several symptoms that can~be caused by damaged or worn tire and wheels. Carry out a careful visual inspection of the tires and wheel assemblies. Spin the tires slowly and watch for signs of lateral or radial runout. Refer to the tire wear chart to determine the tire wear conditions and actions. For a vibration concern, use the vehicle speed to determine tire/wheel frequency and rpm. Calculate tire and wheel rpm and frequency by carrying out and following: ^ Measure the diameter of the tire. ^ Record the speed at which the vibration occurs. Obtain the corresponding tire and wheel rpm and frequency from the Tire Speed and Frequency Chart. - If the vehicle speed is not listed, divide the vehicle speed at which the vibration occurs by 16 (km/h (10 mph). Multiply that number by 16 km/h (10 mph) tire rpm listed for that tire diameter in the chart. Then divide that number by 60. For example: a 40 mph vibration with 835 mm (33 in) tires. 40 divided by 10 = 4. Multiply 4 by 105 = 420 rpm. Divide 420 rpm by 60 seconds = 7 Hz at 40mph. Page 1278 ^ Advance through the flowchart from left to right. ^ Match the operating condition to the symptom. ^ Verify the symptom. ^ Identify which category or system could cause the symptom. ^ Refer to the diagnostic symptom chart that the flowchart refers to. Glossary of Terms Acceleration-Light An increase in speed at less than half throttle. Acceleration-Medium An increase in speed at half to nearly full throttle, such as 0-97 km/h (0-60 mph) in approximately 30 seconds. Acceleration-Heavy An increase in speed at one-half to full throttle, such as 0-97 km/h (0-60 mph) in approximately 20 seconds. Ambient Temperature The surrounding or prevailing temperature. Amplitude The quantity or amount of energy produced by a vibrating component (G force). An extreme vibration has a high amplitude. A mild vibration has a low amplitude. Backlash Gear teeth clearance. Boom Low frequency or low pitched noise often accompanied by a vibration. Also refer to Drumming. Bound Up An overstressed isolation (rubber) mount that transmits vibration/noise instead of absorbing it. Brakes Applied When the service brakes are applied with enough force to hold the vehicle against movement with the transmission in gear. Buffet/Buffeting Strong noise fluctuations caused by gusting winds. An example would be wind gusts against the side glass. Buzz A low-pitched sound like that from a bee. Often a metallic or hard plastic humming sound. Also describes a high frequency (200-800 Hz) vibration. Vibration feels similar to an electric razor. Camber The angle of the wheel in relation to the true vertical as measured looking from the front of the vehicle. Camber is positive when the wheel angle is offset so that the top of the wheel is positioned away from the vehicle. Caster The angle of the steering knuckle in relation to the true vertical as measured looking from the side of the vehicle. Chatter A pronounced series of rapidly repeating rattling or clicking sounds. Chirp A short-duration high-pitched noise associated with a slipping drive belt. Chuckle A repetitious low-pitched sound. A loud chuckle is usually described as a knock. Click A sharp, brief, non-resonant sound, similar to actuating a ball point pen. Page 352 ^ Lean shift in fuel system operation - P0171 (Bank 1) and P0174 (Bank 2) ^ Rich shift in fuel system operation - P0172 (Bank 1) and P0175 (Bank 2) Service and Repair Lifter / Lash Adjuster: Service and Repair 1. Remove camshafts. 2. Mark hydraulic lash adjusters and cylinder head with alignment marks so the adjusters can be installed in their original positions. 3. Remove adjusters from cylinder head. 4. Reverse procedure to install, applying clean engine oil to adjusters before installation. Page 688 engine's crankshaft is the point of reference for vibration diagnosis. Every rotating component will have an angular velocity that is faster, slower, or the same as the engine's crankshaft. Vibrate software® calculates the angular velocity of each component and graphically represents these velocities on a computer screen and on a printed vibration worksheet. The following steps outline how Vibrate software® helps diagnose a vibration concern: ^ Enter the vehicle information. Vibrate will do all the calculations and display a graph showing tire, driveshaft and engine vibrations. ^ Print a Vibration Worksheet graph. The printed graph is to be used during the road test. ^ Road test the vehicle at the speed where the vibration is most noticeable. Record the vibration frequency (rpm) and the engine rpm on the worksheet graph. The point on the graph where the vibration frequency (rpm) reading and the engine rpm reading intersect indicates the specific component group causing the concern. - An EVA or equivalent tool capable of measuring vibration frequency and engine rpm will be needed. ^ Provides pictures of diagnostic procedures to aid in testing components. ChassisEAR An electronic listening device used to quickly identify noise and the location under the chassis while the vehicle is being road tested. The chassisEARs can identify the noise and location of damaged/worn wheel bearings, CV joints, brakes, springs, axle bearings or driveshaft carrier bearings. EngineEAR An electronic listening device used to detect even the faintest noises. The EngineEARs can detect the noise of damaged/worn bearings in generators, water pumps, A/C compressors and power steering pumps. They are also used to identify noisy lifters, exhaust manifold leaks, chipped gear teeth and for detecting wind noise. The EngineEAR has a sensing tip, amplifier, and headphones. The directional sensing tip is used to listen to the various components. Point the sensing tip at the suspect component and adjust the volume with the amplifier. Placing the tip in direct contact with a component will reveal structure-borne noise and vibrations, generated by or passing through, the component. Various volume levels can reveal different sounds. Ultrasonic Leak Detector The Ultrasonic Leak Detector is used to detect wind noises caused by leaks and gaps in areas where there is weather-stripping or other sealing material. It is also used to identify A/C leaks, vacuum leaks and evaporative emission noises. The Ultrasonic Leak Detector includes a multi-directional transmitter (operating in the ultrasonic range) and a hand-held detector. The transmitter is placed inside the vehicle. On the outside of the vehicle, the hand-held detector is used to sweep the area of the suspected leak. As the source of the leak is approached, a beeping sound is produced which increases in both speed and frequency. Squeak and Rattle Repair Kit The squeak and rattle repair kit contains lubricants and self-adhesive materials that can be used to eliminate interior and exterior squeaks and rattles. The kit consists of the following materials: ^ PVC (soft foam) tape ^ Urethane (hard foam) tape ^ Flocked (black fuzzy) tape ^ UHMW (frosted) tape ^ Squeak and rattle oil tube Page 1285 g. Compare the readings. - A match in frequency indicates the problem component or area. - An unmatched test could indicate the concern is caused by the engine, torque converter, or engine accessory. Use the EVA in the rpm mode and check if concern is rpm related. - Example: A vibration is felt in the seat, place the sensor on the console. Record the readings. Place the vibration sensor on the rear axle. Compare the readings. If the frequencies are the same, the axle is the problem component. Also refer to the following chart as a reference to acceptable vibration and noise ranges for the specified components. Vibrate Software(R) Vibrate software(R) (Rotunda tool number 215-00003) is a diagnostic aid which will assist in pinpointing the source of unacceptable vibrations. The Page 1106 Power Distribution Page 658 Master Window Control Switch - Terminal Locations Master Window Control Switch - Schematic Page 1743 Rotate the steering wheel to the RH stop. then turn the steering wheel 90° back from that position. Turn the steering wheel slowly in a 15° to 30° arc. 4. Turn the steering wheel another 90°. Turn the steering wheel slowly in a 15° to 30° arc. 5. Repeat the test with power steering fluid at different temperatures. 6. If a light grunt is heard or a low (50-200Hz) shudder is present, this is a normal steering system condition. Checking Tooth Contact Pattern/Condition of Ring & Pinion There are two basic types of conditions that will produce ring and pinion noise. The first type is a howl or chuckle produced by broken, cracked, chipped, scored or forcibly damaged gear teeth and is usually quite audible over the entire speed range. The second type of ring and pinion noise pertains to the mesh pattern of the gear pattern. This gear noise can be recognized as it produces a cycling pitch or whine. Ring and pinion noise tends to peak in a narrow speed range or ranges, and will tend to remain constant in pitch. 1. Raise and support the vehicle. 2. Drain the axle lubricant. Refer to the appropriate workshop manual for the draining procedures. 3. Remove the carrier assembly or the axle housing cover depending on the axle type. Refer to the appropriate workshop manual for the service procedures. 4. Inspect the gear set for scoring or damage. 5. In the following steps, the movement of the contact pattern along the length is indicated as toward the "heel" or "toe" of the differential ring gear. 6. Apply a marking compound to a third of the gear teeth on the differential ring gear. Rotate the differential ring gear several complete turns in both directions until a good, clear tooth pattern is obtained. Inspect the contact patterns on the ring gear teeth. 7. A good contact pattern should be centered on the tooth. It can also be slightly toward the toe. There should always he some clearance between the contact pattern and the top of the tooth. Tooth contact pattern shown on the drive side of the gear teeth. 8. A high, thick contact pattern that is worn more toward the toe. ^ Tooth contact pattern shown on the drive side of the gear teeth. ^ The high contact pattern indicates that the drive pinion is not installed deep enough into the carrier. Page 1365 Rotate the steering wheel to the RH stop. then turn the steering wheel 90° back from that position. Turn the steering wheel slowly in a 15° to 30° arc. 4. Turn the steering wheel another 90°. Turn the steering wheel slowly in a 15° to 30° arc. 5. Repeat the test with power steering fluid at different temperatures. 6. If a light grunt is heard or a low (50-200Hz) shudder is present, this is a normal steering system condition. Checking Tooth Contact Pattern/Condition of Ring & Pinion There are two basic types of conditions that will produce ring and pinion noise. The first type is a howl or chuckle produced by broken, cracked, chipped, scored or forcibly damaged gear teeth and is usually quite audible over the entire speed range. The second type of ring and pinion noise pertains to the mesh pattern of the gear pattern. This gear noise can be recognized as it produces a cycling pitch or whine. Ring and pinion noise tends to peak in a narrow speed range or ranges, and will tend to remain constant in pitch. 1. Raise and support the vehicle. 2. Drain the axle lubricant. Refer to the appropriate workshop manual for the draining procedures. 3. Remove the carrier assembly or the axle housing cover depending on the axle type. Refer to the appropriate workshop manual for the service procedures. 4. Inspect the gear set for scoring or damage. 5. In the following steps, the movement of the contact pattern along the length is indicated as toward the "heel" or "toe" of the differential ring gear. 6. Apply a marking compound to a third of the gear teeth on the differential ring gear. Rotate the differential ring gear several complete turns in both directions until a good, clear tooth pattern is obtained. Inspect the contact patterns on the ring gear teeth. 7. A good contact pattern should be centered on the tooth. It can also be slightly toward the toe. There should always he some clearance between the contact pattern and the top of the tooth. Tooth contact pattern shown on the drive side of the gear teeth. 8. A high, thick contact pattern that is worn more toward the toe. ^ Tooth contact pattern shown on the drive side of the gear teeth. ^ The high contact pattern indicates that the drive pinion is not installed deep enough into the carrier. Page 1481 Tire Force Vibration A tire vibration caused by variations in the construction of the tire that is noticeable when the tire rotates against the pavement. This condition can be present on perfectly round tires because of variations in the inner tire construction. This condition can occur at wheel rotation frequency or twice rotation frequency. Transient Momentary, short duration. Two-Plane Balance Radial and lateral balance. Vibration Any motion, shaking or trembling, that can be felt or seen when an object moves back and forth or up and down. Whine A constant, high-pitched noise. Also described as a screech. Whistle High-pitched noise (above 500Hz) with a very narrow frequency band. Examples of whistle noises are a turbocharger or airflow around an antenna. Wind Noise Any noise caused by air movement in, out or around the vehicle. WOT Wide-open throttle Tools and Techniques Electronic Vibration Analyzer (EVA) The EVA is a hand-held electronic diagnostic tool which will assist in locating the source of unacceptable vibrations. The vibration sensor can be remotely mounted anywhere in the vehicle for testing purposes. The unit displays the three most common vibration frequencies and their corresponding amplitudes simultaneously. A bar graph provides a visual reference of the relative signal strength (amplitude) of each vibration being displayed and its relative G force. The keypad is arranged to make the EVA simple to program and use. Some of the functions include the ability to average readings as well as record, play back and freeze readings. The EVA has a strobe balancing function that can be used to detect imbalance on rotating components such as a driveshaft or engine accessories. Page 1606 CAUTION: SEPARATE AUXILIARY BRAKES ARE REQUIRED ON TRAILERS OR TOWED VEHICLES OVER 680 KG (1500 LBS). DO NOT CONNECT A TRAILER'S, DOLLY'S OR OTHER TOWED VEHICLE'S BRAKE SYSTEM TO THE TOWING VEHICLE'S BRAKE SYSTEM. TOWED VEHICLES 1. Trailer-towed - The vehicle should be loaded on the trailer in a manner to: a. achieve a trailer tongue load of 10-15% of total trailer weight, b. not exceed the trailer or hitch ratings and c. be securely tied down. 2. Dolly-towed - For front wheel drive vehicles, towing an automatic transaxle (ATX)-equipped vehicle behind another vehicle, such as a Recreational Vehicle (RV), requires that a front wheel dolly or trailer be used. NOTE: TEMPO ALL-WHEEL DRIVE MODELS MUST BE TRAILER-TOWED. DO NOT TOW THESE VEHICLES USING A TWO-WHEEL TOWING DOLLY. CAUTION: DO NOT TOW A VEHICLE WITH AN AUTOMATIC (ATX) TRANSAXLE WITH THE DRIVE WHEELS ON THE GROUND. DAMAGE TO THE TRANSAXLE MAY RESULT. 3. Tow Bar-towed - Vehicles which can be successfully towed with a tow bar are listed in the following chart. Additional vehicle-specific information follows the chart. ALL VEHICLES NOTE: DO NOT TOW ANY VEHICLE AT A SPEED FASTER THAN 88 KM/H (55 MPH). THE MAXIMUM TOWING DISTANCE (WHEN TOWED CORRECTLY) IS UNLIMITED. WARNING: NEVER USE A TOW BAR THAT ATTACHES ONLY TO THE BUMPER. MTX-EQUIPPED VEHICLES Page 749 Description and Operation Distributor Cap: Description and Operation Distributor Cap And Rotor PURPOSE Distribute high voltage secondary coil output to spark plugs in proper sequence (firing order). OPERATION Sparking voltage travels through the coil wire to the center electrode and to the center of the distributor rotor. The distributor rotor turns with the shaft. The distributor cap, rotor and wires are arranged so that when the coil discharges, the tip of the rotor is pointed at the correct spark plug terminal. CONSTRUCTION The molded plastic distributor cap has a spring loaded carbon electrode at its center and electrodes positioned around its inside perimeter that connect to the spark plugs, one for each cylinder. Page 1397 Transmission (Manual) and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration. 6. Shifting ^ Noise or vibration condition related to the transmission (automatic). GO to Symptom Chart Transmission (Automatic) Noise/Vibration. ^ Noise or vibration related to the transmission (manual). GO to Symptom Chart - Transmission (Manual) and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration. 7. Engaged in four-wheel drive. GO to Symptom Chart - Transmission (Manual) and Transfer Case Noise/Vibration. 8. Cruising speeds ^ Accelerator pedal vibration. GO to Symptom Chart - Engine Noise/Vib ration. ^ Driveline vibration. GO to Symptom Chart - Driveline Noise/Vibration. ^ A shimmy or shake. GO to Symptom Chart - Tire Noise/Vibration. 9. Driving at low/medium speeds ^ A wobble or shudder. GO to Symptom Chart - Tire Noise/Vibration. 2. Depends more on where the vehicle is operated 1. Bump/pothole, rough road or smooth road. GO to Symptom Chart - Suspension Noise/Vibration. ^ Noise is random or intermittent occurring from road irregularities. GO to Symptom Chart - Squeak and Rattle. ^ Noise or vibration changes from one road surface to another. Normal sound changes. ^ Noise or vibration associated with a hard/firm ride. GO to Symptom Chart - Suspension Noise/Vibration. Page 682 The equal distribution of weight on each side of the centerline, so that when the wheel and tire assembly spins, there is no tendency for the assembly to move from side-to-side (wobble). Dynamically unbalanced wheel and tire assemblies can cause wheel shimmy. Engine Imbalance A condition in which an engine's center mass is not concentric to the rotation center. Excessive motion. Engine Misfire When combustion in one or more cylinders does not occur or occurs at the wrong time. Engine Shake An exaggerated engine movement or vibration that directly increases in frequency as the engine speed increases. It is caused by non-equal distribution of mass in the rotating or reciprocating components. Flexible Coupling A flexible joint. Float A drive mode on the dividing line between cruise and coast where the throttle setting matches the engine speed with the road speed. Flutter Mid to high (100-200 Hz) intermittent sound due to air flow. Similar to a flag flapping in the wind. Frequency The rate at which a cycle occurs within a given time. Gravelly Feel A grinding or growl in a component, similar to the feel experienced when driving on gravel. Grind An abrasive sound, similar to using a grinding wheel, or rubbing sand paper against wood. Hiss Steady high frequency (200-800 Hz) noise. Vacuum leak sound. Hoot A steady low frequency tone (50-500 Hz), sounds like blowing over a long neck bottle. Howl A mid-range frequency noise between drumming and whine. Hum Mid-frequency (200-800 Hz) steady sound, like a small fan motor. Also described as a howl. Hz Hertz; a frequency measured in cycles per second. Imbalance Out of balance; heavier on one side than the other. In a rotating component, imbalance often causes vibration. Inboard Toward the centerline of the vehicle. Intensity The physical quality of sound that relates to the strength of the vibration (measured in decibels). The higher the sound's amplitude, the higher the intensity and vice versa. Isolate To separate the influence of one component to another. Knock A heavy, loud, repetitious sound, like a knock on the door. Moan A constant, low-frequency (100-200 Hz) tone. Also described as a hum. Neutral Engine Run-Up (NERU) Test Page 1573 Wheel Bearing: Service and Repair 1. Remove front hub/steering knuckle assembly from vehicle. 2. Position front hub/steering knuckle assembly on a press and press front hub out of steering knuckle using a suitable removal tool. 3. Remove E-clip from steering knuckle, then position steering knuckle onto a press. 4. Using a suitable bearing remover, press bearing out of steering knuckle. 5. Reverse procedure to install. Page 141 Passive Restraint Module (C379) Page 1657 Clonk A hydraulic knocking sound. Sound occurs with air pockets in a hydraulic system. Also described as hammering. Clunk/Driveline Clunk A heavy or dull, short-duration, low-frequency sound. Occurs mostly on a vehicle that is accelerating or decelerating abruptly. Also described as a thunk. Coast/Deceleration Releasing the accelerator pedal at cruise, allowing the engine to reduce vehicle speed without applying the brakes. Coast/Neutral Coast Placing the transmission range selector in NEUTRAL (N) or depressing the clutch pedal while at cruise. Constant Velocity (CV) Joint A joint used to absorb vibrations caused by driving power being transmitted at an angle. Controlled Rear Suspension Height The height at which a designated vehicle element must be when driveline angle measurements are made. Coupling Shaft The shaft between the transfer case and the front drive axle or, in a two-piece rear driveshaft, the front section. CPS Cycles per second. Same as hertz (Hz). Cracks A mid-frequency sound, related to squeak. Sound varies with temperature conditions. Creak A metallic squeak. Cruise Constant speed on level ground; neither accelerating nor decelerating. Cycle The process of a vibrating component going through a complete range of motion and returning to the starting point. Decibel A unit of measurement, referring to sound pressure level, abbreviated dB. Drive Engine Run-Up (DERU) Test The operation of the engine through the normal rpm range with the vehicle standing still, the brakes applied and the transmission engaged. This test is used for noise and vibration checks. Driveline Angles The differences of alignment between the transmission output shaft, the drive shaft, and the rear axle pinion centerline. Driveshaft The shaft that transmits power to the rear axle input shaft (pinion shaft). In a two-piece driveshaft, it is the rearmost shaft. Drivetrain All power transmitting components from the engine to the wheels; includes the clutch or torque converter, the transmission, the transfer case, the driveshaft, and the front or rear drive axle. Drivetrain Damper A weight attached to the engine, the transmission, the transfer case, or the axle. It is tuned by weight and placement to absorb vibration. Drone A low frequency (100-200 Hz) steady sound, like a freezer compressor. Also described as a moan. Drumming A cycling, low-frequency (20-100 Hz), rhythmic noise often accompanied by a sensation of pressure on the eardrums. Also described as a low rumble, boom, or rolling thunder. Dynamic Balance Page 1171 Shudder A low-frequency vibration that is felt through the steering wheel or seat during light brake application. Slap A resonance from flat surfaces, such as safety belt webbing or door trim panels. Slip Yoke/Slip Spline The driveshaft coupling that allows length changes to occur while the suspension articulates and while the driveshaft rotates. Squeak A high-pitched transient sound, similar to rubbing fingers against a clean window. Squeal A long-duration, high-pitched noise. Static Balance The equal distribution of weight around the wheel. Statically unbalanced wheel and tire assemblies can cause a bouncing action called wheel tramp. This condition will eventually cause uneven tire wear. Tap A light, rhythmic, or intermittent hammering sound, similar to tapping a pencil on a table edge. Thump A dull beat caused by two items striking together. Tick A rhythmic tap, similar to a clock noise. Tip-In Moan A light moaning noise heard during light vehicle acceleration, usually between 40-100 km/h (25-65 mph). TIR Total indicated run out Tire Deflection The change in tire diameter in the area where the tire contacts the ground. Tire Flat Spots A condition commonly caused by letting the vehicle stand while the tires cool off. This condition can be corrected by driving the vehicle until the tires are warm. Also, irregular tire wear patterns in the tire tread resulting from wheel-locked skids. Page 1249 Testing and Inspection Fuel Gauge Sender: Testing and Inspection 1. Remove fuel gauge sender from fuel tank. 2. Connect Rotunda 73 digital multimeter 005-00051, or equivalent, to fuel tank sending unit "Y" and "BK/GN" wire terminals. 3. Adjust float rod to empty stop position closest to filter. Resistance should be 14-18 ohms. 4. Adjust float rod to full stop position. Resistance should be 155-165 ohms. 5. Slowly move float rod from empty to full stop position. Resistance should increase slowly. 6. If sending unit does not operate as specified, replace it. If unit operates as specified, refer to pinpoint test. See: Instrument Panel, Gauges and Warning Indicators/Fuel Gauge/Testing and Inspection/Pinpoint Tests Page 1664 engine's crankshaft is the point of reference for vibration diagnosis. Every rotating component will have an angular velocity that is faster, slower, or the same as the engine's crankshaft. Vibrate software® calculates the angular velocity of each component and graphically represents these velocities on a computer screen and on a printed vibration worksheet. The following steps outline how Vibrate software® helps diagnose a vibration concern: ^ Enter the vehicle information. Vibrate will do all the calculations and display a graph showing tire, driveshaft and engine vibrations. ^ Print a Vibration Worksheet graph. The printed graph is to be used during the road test. ^ Road test the vehicle at the speed where the vibration is most noticeable. Record the vibration frequency (rpm) and the engine rpm on the worksheet graph. The point on the graph where the vibration frequency (rpm) reading and the engine rpm reading intersect indicates the specific component group causing the concern. - An EVA or equivalent tool capable of measuring vibration frequency and engine rpm will be needed. ^ Provides pictures of diagnostic procedures to aid in testing components. ChassisEAR An electronic listening device used to quickly identify noise and the location under the chassis while the vehicle is being road tested. The chassisEARs can identify the noise and location of damaged/worn wheel bearings, CV joints, brakes, springs, axle bearings or driveshaft carrier bearings. EngineEAR An electronic listening device used to detect even the faintest noises. The EngineEARs can detect the noise of damaged/worn bearings in generators, water pumps, A/C compressors and power steering pumps. They are also used to identify noisy lifters, exhaust manifold leaks, chipped gear teeth and for detecting wind noise. The EngineEAR has a sensing tip, amplifier, and headphones. The directional sensing tip is used to listen to the various components. Point the sensing tip at the suspect component and adjust the volume with the amplifier. Placing the tip in direct contact with a component will reveal structure-borne noise and vibrations, generated by or passing through, the component. Various volume levels can reveal different sounds. Ultrasonic Leak Detector The Ultrasonic Leak Detector is used to detect wind noises caused by leaks and gaps in areas where there is weather-stripping or other sealing material. It is also used to identify A/C leaks, vacuum leaks and evaporative emission noises. The Ultrasonic Leak Detector includes a multi-directional transmitter (operating in the ultrasonic range) and a hand-held detector. The transmitter is placed inside the vehicle. On the outside of the vehicle, the hand-held detector is used to sweep the area of the suspected leak. As the source of the leak is approached, a beeping sound is produced which increases in both speed and frequency. Squeak and Rattle Repair Kit The squeak and rattle repair kit contains lubricants and self-adhesive materials that can be used to eliminate interior and exterior squeaks and rattles. The kit consists of the following materials: ^ PVC (soft foam) tape ^ Urethane (hard foam) tape ^ Flocked (black fuzzy) tape ^ UHMW (frosted) tape ^ Squeak and rattle oil tube Capacity Specifications Refrigerant: Capacity Specifications A/C Refrigerant Capacity ..................................................................................................................... ....................................................................... 28 oz Page 1489 To assist the service advisor and the technician, a Write-up Job Aid and an NVH Diagnostic Guide are included with this material. The Write-up Job Aid serves as a place to record all important symptom information. The NVH Diagnostic Guide serves as a place to record information reported on the Write-up Job Aid as well as data from the testing to be carried out. To begin a successful diagnosis, fill out the NVH Diagnostic Guide, record the reported findings, then proceed to each of the numbered process steps to complete the diagnosis. 1. Customer Interview The diagnostic process starts with the customer interview. The service advisor must obtain as much information as possible about the problem and take a test drive with the customer. There are many ways a customer will describe NVH concerns and this will help minimize confusion arising from descriptive language differences. It is important that the concern is correctly interpreted and the customer descriptions are recorded. During the interview, ask the following questions: Page 704 Specifications Compression Check: Specifications The compression pressure check should be performed with the engine at normal operating temperature with spark plugs removed, wide open throttle and the distributor end of the ignition coil wire grounded. Compression pressure should be 164-200 psi. Page 1383 The EVA allows for a systematic collection of information that is necessary to accurately diagnose and repair NVH problems. For the best results, carry out the test as follows: a. Test drive the vehicle with the vibration sensor inside the vehicle. b. Place the sensor in the vehicle according to feel. - If the condition is felt through the steering wheel, the source is most likely in the front of the vehicle. - A vibration that is felt in the seat or floor only will most likely be found in the driveline, drive axle or rear wheels and tires. c. Record the readings. Also note when the condition begins when it reaches maximum intensity. and if it tends to diminish above/below a certain speed. - Frequencies should be read in the "avg" mode. - Frequencies have a range of plus or minus 2. A reading of 10 Hz can be displayed as an 8 Hz through 12 Hz. d. Determine what the normal frequency is for the vehicle at a specified speed. Multiply the rear axle ratio by the Hz (1 Hz per every 5 mph). Example: A vehicle travelling 50 mph with a 3.08 rear axle ratio, the acceptable amount of Hz for the vehicle at that speed would be 10 (1 Hz per every 5 mph) X 3.08 (rear axle ratio) = 30.8 Hz. e. Place the vibration sensor on or near the suspect area outside the vehicle. f. Continue the road test, driving the vehicle at the speed the symptom occurs, and take another reading. Page 1404 Page 1461 Page 187 Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor Data Chart Page 1772 Clonk A hydraulic knocking sound. Sound occurs with air pockets in a hydraulic system. Also described as hammering. Clunk/Driveline Clunk A heavy or dull, short-duration, low-frequency sound. Occurs mostly on a vehicle that is accelerating or decelerating abruptly. Also described as a thunk. Coast/Deceleration Releasing the accelerator pedal at cruise, allowing the engine to reduce vehicle speed without applying the brakes. Coast/Neutral Coast Placing the transmission range selector in NEUTRAL (N) or depressing the clutch pedal while at cruise. Constant Velocity (CV) Joint A joint used to absorb vibrations caused by driving power being transmitted at an angle. Controlled Rear Suspension Height The height at which a designated vehicle element must be when driveline angle measurements are made. Coupling Shaft The shaft between the transfer case and the front drive axle or, in a two-piece rear driveshaft, the front section. CPS Cycles per second. Same as hertz (Hz). Cracks A mid-frequency sound, related to squeak. Sound varies with temperature conditions. Creak A metallic squeak. Cruise Constant speed on level ground; neither accelerating nor decelerating. Cycle The process of a vibrating component going through a complete range of motion and returning to the starting point. Decibel A unit of measurement, referring to sound pressure level, abbreviated dB. Drive Engine Run-Up (DERU) Test The operation of the engine through the normal rpm range with the vehicle standing still, the brakes applied and the transmission engaged. This test is used for noise and vibration checks. Driveline Angles The differences of alignment between the transmission output shaft, the drive shaft, and the rear axle pinion centerline. Driveshaft The shaft that transmits power to the rear axle input shaft (pinion shaft). In a two-piece driveshaft, it is the rearmost shaft. Drivetrain All power transmitting components from the engine to the wheels; includes the clutch or torque converter, the transmission, the transfer case, the driveshaft, and the front or rear drive axle. Drivetrain Damper A weight attached to the engine, the transmission, the transfer case, or the axle. It is tuned by weight and placement to absorb vibration. Drone A low frequency (100-200 Hz) steady sound, like a freezer compressor. Also described as a moan. Drumming A cycling, low-frequency (20-100 Hz), rhythmic noise often accompanied by a sensation of pressure on the eardrums. Also described as a low rumble, boom, or rolling thunder. Dynamic Balance Page 1265 braking. That fact can be used to correctly determine that the customer is not experiencing brake-caused roughness. If however, there is brake roughness in addition to tire problems, then both problems must be repaired. If the inspection shows that tires are contributing to roughness (vibration or roughness present in all driving conditions, not just braking) they should first be balanced and rotated using normal maintenance procedures then follow the steps below to correct the brake roughness. 2. Check the Wheel Lug Nut Tightening Torque Uneven and/or out of specification torque on the wheel lug nuts will cause the brake rotors to warp. Up to 0.005 inch rotor runout can occur due to improper lug nut tightening. The first thing to check for is the consistency of torque of the lug nuts on each wheel. If the torque readings are not within 20% of each other, that gives an indication of a cause of the concern of brake roughness. Improper lug nut tightening can have the following order of effects: 1. Rotor runout 2. Rotor thickness variation 3. Brake torque variation 4. Brake roughness Ultimately, the rotor may be damaged and must be resurfaced. Follow the procedure in the Service Manual for resurfacing the rotors. Proper torque must be used when a resurfaced or new rotor is installed. Use of a torque wrench is again stressed, or as an alternative, the Rotunda "ACCUTORQ" 164-R0314 or equivalent must be used. When installing a new rotor, do not machine the rotor on a bench lathe. Any surface contamination can be removed with grease solvents or with very light hand sanding. Refer to # 3, CHECK FOR RUST/CONTAMINATION... 3. Check for Rust/Contamination on Mounting Surfaces Surface rust or contaminations on the wheel-to-rotor and rotor-to-hub flange surfaces should be cleaned with very light hand sanding. Use garnet paper 100A or aluminum oxide 150J grit. DO NOT USE HARSH, ABRASIVE TOOLS. If the cleaning is not done, it will contribute to the runout of the rotor when assembled, which will cause brake roughness later on. Any removal of rust on the rotor braking surfaces using harsh abrasive tools is not approved by Ford. The on-car turning procedure is the only sanctioned method at this time to deal with repairing rusty rotors. Since the thickness of the rotors are manufactured to less than 0.0004 inch tolerance, using hand held tools on the rotor surfaces can not guarantee maintaining the tolerance. Concerns will occur of brake roughness with rotor thickness variation of 0.0008 inch or less on certain very sensitive vehicles. 4. Check for Runout of the Front Rotor on the Car and Front Hub Mount Runout of the rotor mounted on car should not exceed 0.003 inch. With the wheel off, fasten the lug nuts back on to hold the rotor onto the hub. The fastening torque should not exceed 81 N.m (60 lb-ft) and should be even. With the dial indicator attached to the spindle, slowly rotate the rotor to get the total indicated runout. This value should not exceed the Total Indicated Runout (TIR) as specified in the appropriate Service Manual. If it exceeds specification, first index the rotor one (1) wheel stud at a time. If the readings still exceed 0.003 inch, then the hub face runout should be checked. Repeat the runout check procedure on the hub face. If the runout exceeds 0.002 inch, the hub must be replaced, otherwise the rotor must be resurfaced on the vehicle or replaced. 5. Check for Rear Brake Roughness Except for the vehicles with separate drum in disc parking brake (e.g., Crown Victoria, Grand Marquis and Town Car) the rear brake can be actuated by actuating the parking brake. Attempt to slow down the vehicle from 48 km/h (30 mph) with the transmission in neutral using the parking brake. If roughness is present, then the rear brakes need to be serviced. If roughness is not present, then front brakes need servicing. To service the rear brakes follow the procedure above for servicing the front brakes. 6. Check for Proper Caliper Operation Inspect the calipers for leaks and brake fluid contamination. Any leaks from the wheel cylinders and seals must be repaired per the Service Manual. Also, inspect for glazing of the brake pads which may indicate a seized caliper piston, frequent severe or unintentional brake dragging by the customer. Repair as specified in the Service Manual. OTHER APPLICABLE ARTICLES: 92-12-4, 92-19-2, 92-4-3, 93-16-2, 93-26-2, 93-6-3, 94-25-1, 94-25-2, 95-6-4 WARRANTY STATUS: INFORMATION ONLY OASIS CODES: 301000 Page 1773 The equal distribution of weight on each side of the centerline, so that when the wheel and tire assembly spins, there is no tendency for the assembly to move from side-to-side (wobble). Dynamically unbalanced wheel and tire assemblies can cause wheel shimmy. Engine Imbalance A condition in which an engine's center mass is not concentric to the rotation center. Excessive motion. Engine Misfire When combustion in one or more cylinders does not occur or occurs at the wrong time. Engine Shake An exaggerated engine movement or vibration that directly increases in frequency as the engine speed increases. It is caused by non-equal distribution of mass in the rotating or reciprocating components. Flexible Coupling A flexible joint. Float A drive mode on the dividing line between cruise and coast where the throttle setting matches the engine speed with the road speed. Flutter Mid to high (100-200 Hz) intermittent sound due to air flow. Similar to a flag flapping in the wind. Frequency The rate at which a cycle occurs within a given time. Gravelly Feel A grinding or growl in a component, similar to the feel experienced when driving on gravel. Grind An abrasive sound, similar to using a grinding wheel, or rubbing sand paper against wood. Hiss Steady high frequency (200-800 Hz) noise. Vacuum leak sound. Hoot A steady low frequency tone (50-500 Hz), sounds like blowing over a long neck bottle. Howl A mid-range frequency noise between drumming and whine. Hum Mid-frequency (200-800 Hz) steady sound, like a small fan motor. Also described as a howl. Hz Hertz; a frequency measured in cycles per second. Imbalance Out of balance; heavier on one side than the other. In a rotating component, imbalance often causes vibration. Inboard Toward the centerline of the vehicle. Intensity The physical quality of sound that relates to the strength of the vibration (measured in decibels). The higher the sound's amplitude, the higher the intensity and vice versa. Isolate To separate the influence of one component to another. Knock A heavy, loud, repetitious sound, like a knock on the door. Moan A constant, low-frequency (100-200 Hz) tone. Also described as a hum. Neutral Engine Run-Up (NERU) Test Page 1194 Locations Power Door Lock Relay: Locations Instrument Panel View The Door Lock/Unlock Relay is located behind LH side of the instrument panel, near cowl. Page 1561 Page 628 Transmission Speed Sensor: Description and Operation Turbine Speed Sensor PURPOSE The frequency from the Turbine Speed Sensor supplies the powertrain control module with the turbine shaft speed information. This information is used in determining the torque converter engagement schedules. Page 937 Refrigerant: Technical Service Bulletins A/C - Release of R134a Fluorescent Dye Article No. 94-26-6 12/26/94 AIR CONDITIONING - RELEASE OF R-134A FLUORESCENT TRACER DYE - FOR 1992 TAURUS, R-134A VEHICLES ONLY - SERVICE TIP FORD: 1992-95 TAURUS 1994-95 ASPIRE, CROWN VICTORIA, ESCORT, MUSTANG, PROBE, THUNDERBIRD 1994 TEMPO 1995 CONTOUR LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1993-95 MARK VIII 1994-95 CONTINENTAL, COUGAR, GRAND MARQUIS, SABLE, TOWN CAR, TRACER 1994 CAPRI, TOPAZ 1995 MYSTIQUE LIGHT TRUCK: 1994-95 AEROSTAR, BRONCO, ECONOLINE, EXPLORER, F-150-350 SERIES, RANGER, VILLAGER 1995 WINDSTAR ISSUE: Ford Motor Company has approved an R-134a Fluorescent Tracer Dye (Rotunda Part, 112-ROO40) for use in checking R-134a A/C systems for refrigerant leaks. Page 496 Page 893 Service automatic transmissions requiring MERCON(R) with MERCON(R) V or MERCON(R) Automatic Transmission Fluid or dual usage fluids labeled MERCON(R) / MERCON(R) V For proper fluid application on current and past model vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions I transaxles refer to the fluid usage chart. (Figure 1) CAUTION AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS / TRANSAXLES THAT REQUIRE MERCON® V SHOULD STILL ONLY USE MERCON(R) V OR DUAL USAGE FLUID LABELED MERCON(R) / MERCON(R) V. Page 555 Impact Sensor: Service and Repair Right Front WARNING: THE BACKUP POWER SUPPLY ENERGY MUST BE DEPLETED BEFORE ANY AIR BAG COMPONENT SERVICE IS PERFORMED. TO DEPLETE THE BACKUP POWER SUPPLY ENERGY, DISCONNECT THE BATTERY GROUND CABLE AND WAIT ONE MINUTE. Removal 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable and wait one minute for the backup power supply energy to be depleted. 2. Remove the three screws and the upper radiator air deflector. 3. Remove the radiator grille screw. 4. Release the five radiator grille clips and remove the radiator grille. Page 941 Refrigerant: Fluid Type Specifications Refrigerant Type .................................................................................................................................. ....................................................................... R-134a Page 1085 Power Distribution Fuse MAIN Fuse MAIN - protects the following circuits: ^ Charging System ^ Fuse (AD) FAN ^ Fuse BTN Page 444 ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS Electrical Symbols Page 1368 Page 1439 Page 1123 Power Distribution Page 986 Fuse: Electrical Diagrams Circuit-to-Fuse Cross Reference A/C-Heater ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................................ Fuse (AD) FAN Air Bag Diagnostic Module ................................ ........................................................................................................................................... Fuse AIR BAG Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) Main Relay ......................................................................................................................................................... Fuse ABS Charging System ................................................................................................................ ............................................... Fuse FUEL INJECTOR & MAIN Cooling Fans .................................... ................................................................................................................................................... Fuse COOLING FAN Daytime Running Lamps ........................................................................................... ......................................................................................... Fuse HEAD Engine Controls ..................... ........................................................................................................................................................... Fuse FUEL INJECTOR Fuel Pump Relay ........................................................................................... .................................................................................................. Fuse ST.SIGN Fuse (AD) FAN ......... .............................................................................................................................................................. ............................ Fuse MAIN Fuse ABS ............................................................................................ ................................................................................................................ Fuse MAIN Fuse AIR BAG . .............................................................................................................................................................. ..................................... Fuse MAIN Fuse BELT .................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................... Fuse BTN Fuse BTN .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................. Fuse MAIN Fuse COOLING FAN ......................................................... ................................................................................................................................ Fuse MAIN Fuse DOOR LOCK ....................................................................................................................................... ......................................................... Fuse BTN Fuse HAZARD .......................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ Fuse BTN Fuse HORN ......................................................................................................................................... .................................................................. Fuse BTN Fuse ROOM .................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... Fuse BTN Fuse STOP ......................................................................................................................... .................................................................................... Fuse BTN Fuse TAIL ...................................... .............................................................................................................................................................. .......... Fuse BTN Headlamps .............................................................................................................. ............................................................................................ Fuse HEAD Heater ................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. ............ Fuse (AD) FAN Ignition Switch ............................................................................................... ..................................................................................................... Fuse MAIN Powertrain Control Module ................................................................................................................................................. ........................... Fuse ST.SIGN Fuse (AD) FAN Fuse (AD) FAN - protects the following circuits: ^ Heater ^ A/C-Heater Page 99 Powertrain Control Module: Connector Views Connector Views Powertrain Control Module Page 366 Sample Power Distribution Diagram Power Distribution Diagrams Provide the circuit details of how the system diagrams are powered. The power distribution source is shown at the top of a diagram page. All wires, connectors, and splices are shown in the same manner that the current flows, ending at the component/system being powered near the bottom of a diagram page. Circuits that go from one diagram page to another will be marked with large arrow heads. The power distribution diagrams can be found at Starting and Charging/Power and Ground Distribution. Page 1068 Instrument Panel Fuse Panel (C260) Page 695 speed-related. ^ The Neutral Run-up Test is used as a follow-up test to the Downshift Speed Test when the concern occurs at idle. ^ The Engine Load Test helps to identify vibration/noise sensitive to engine load or torque. It also helps to reproduce engine speed-related concerns that cannot be duplicated when carrying out the Neutral Run-up Test or the Neutral Coast Down Test. ^ The Engine Accessory Test helps to locate faulty belts and accessories that cause engine speed-related concerns. ^ The Vehicle Cold Soak Procedure helps to identify concerns occurring during initial start-up and when an extended time lapse occurs between vehicle usage. Slow Acceleration Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Slowly accelerate to the speed where the reported concern occurs. Note the vehicle speed, the engine rpm and, if possible, determine the vibration frequency. ^ Attempt to identify from what part of the vehicle the concern is coming. ^ Attempt to identify the source of the concern. ^ Proceed as necessary. Heavy Acceleration Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Accelerate hard from 0-64 km/h (0-40 mph). ^ Decelerate in a lower gear. ^ The concern is torque related if duplicated while carrying out this test. ^ Proceed as necessary. Neutral Coast Down Speed Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Drive at a higher rate of speed than where the concern occurred when carrying out the Slow Acceleration Test. ^ Place the transmission in NEUTRAL and coast down past the speed where the concern occurs. ^ The concern is vehicle speed-related if duplicated while carrying out this test. This eliminates the engine and the torque converter as sources. ^ If the concern was not duplicated while carrying out this test, carry out the Downshift Speed Test to verify if the concern is engine speed related. ^ Proceed as necessary. Downshift Speed Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: ^ Shift into a lower gear than the gear used when carrying out the Slow Acceleration Test. ^ Drive at the engine rpm where the concern occurs. ^ The concern is engine speed related if duplicated while carrying out this test. This eliminates the tires, wheels, brakes and the suspension components as sources. ^ If necessary, repeat this test using other gears and NEUTRAL to verify the results. ^ Proceed as necessary. Page 1421 Automatic Transmission Transmission Range Switch Page 1733 Page 769 ^ The pinion gear depth is correct. Decrease the differential ring gear backlash. Tire Wear Patterns & Frequency Calculations Wheel and tire NVH concerns are directly related to vehicle speed and are not generally affected by acceleration, coasting or decelerating. Also, out-of-balance wheel and tires can vibrate at more than one speed. A vibration that is affected by the engine rpm or is eliminated by placing the transmission in NEUTRAL is not related to the tire and wheel. As a general rule, tire and wheel vibrations felt in the steering wheel are related to the front tire and wheel assemblies. Vibrations felt in the seat or floor are related to the rear tire and wheel assemblies. This can initially isolate a concern to the front or rear. Careful attention must be paid to the tire and wheels. There are several symptoms that can~be caused by damaged or worn tire and wheels. Carry out a careful visual inspection of the tires and wheel assemblies. Spin the tires slowly and watch for signs of lateral or radial runout. Refer to the tire wear chart to determine the tire wear conditions and actions. For a vibration concern, use the vehicle speed to determine tire/wheel frequency and rpm. Calculate tire and wheel rpm and frequency by carrying out and following: ^ Measure the diameter of the tire. ^ Record the speed at which the vibration occurs. Obtain the corresponding tire and wheel rpm and frequency from the Tire Speed and Frequency Chart. - If the vehicle speed is not listed, divide the vehicle speed at which the vibration occurs by 16 (km/h (10 mph). Multiply that number by 16 km/h (10 mph) tire rpm listed for that tire diameter in the chart. Then divide that number by 60. For example: a 40 mph vibration with 835 mm (33 in) tires. 40 divided by 10 = 4. Multiply 4 by 105 = 420 rpm. Divide 420 rpm by 60 seconds = 7 Hz at 40mph. Page 1419 Page 121 Fuel Pump Relay: Description and Operation OPERATION The fuel pump relay controls fuel pump operation. The fuel pump relay is mounted under the center of the instrument panel between the panel and the floor. The fuel pump operates only when the engine is cranking or running. It does not operate when the engine is not running, even with the ignition switch turned "ON". During cranking, power from the ignition switch causes the fuel pump relay to close the feed circuit to the fuel pump. The Fuel Pump Switch will also close the feed circuit to the fuel pump Whenever air flow is detected. Page 1235 Page 841 Camshaft Pulley Timing Marks 8. Rotate crankshaft and align timing marks located on camshaft pulleys and seal plate. 9. If timing belt is to be reused, mark an arrow on timing belt to indicate its rotational direction for installation reference. 10. Loosen timing belt tensioner and remove belt. INSTALLATION 1. Temporarily secure timing belt tensioner in far left position with spring fully extended, then tighten lock bolt. Aligning Crankshaft Pulley Timing Marks 2. Ensure that timing marks on timing belt pulley and engine block are aligned. Mechanical Specifications Coolant Temperature Sensor/Switch (For Computer): Mechanical Specifications Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor to Cylinder Head ..................................................................................................................... 25-29 Nm (18-22 lb ft) Page 443 Management, Radio/Stereo, etc. Sample Grounds Diagram Grounds Diagrams Provide the circuit details of how the system diagrams are grounded. This information is useful for checking interconnections of the grounding circuits of different systems. The components/systems being grounded are shown at the top of a diagram page. All wires, connectors, and splices are shown in the same manner that the current flows, ending at the ground at the bottom of a diagram page. Circuits that go from one diagram page to another will be marked with large arrow heads. The grounds diagrams can be found at Starting and Charging/Power and Ground Distribution. Symbol Identification Page 656 Window Switch (Right Front) (4 And 5 Door) Window Switch (Right Rear) Page 1219 Diagrams Cruise Control Module: Diagrams Speed Control Amplifier (C234) Speed Control Amplifier (C235) Page 95 ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS Electrical Symbols Specifications Compression Check: Specifications The compression pressure check should be performed with the engine at normal operating temperature with spark plugs removed, wide open throttle and the distributor end of the ignition coil wire grounded. Compression pressure should be 164-200 psi. Page 899 Fluid - A/T: Service and Repair FLUID CHANGE CAUTION: Normal maintenance and lubrication do not require periodic automatic transaxle fluid changes. If major service, such as a clutch band, bearing, etc. is required, the transaxle will have to be removed for service. At this time the torque converter, cooler, and oil cooler tubes must be thoroughly flushed to remove any contamination. When used after 30,000 miles under continuous or severe conditions, the transaxle and torque converter should be drained and refilled with automatic transaxle fluid. NOTE: The following procedure is for partial drain and refill due to in-vehicle service operation. 1. Raise and support vehicle, then remove drain plug and washer. Discard washer. WARNING: Avoid spilling hot transaxle fluid. 2. Loosen oil pan bolts and drain fluid. 3. Slowly loosen oil pan bolts, allowing pan to drop and oil to drain. 4. Remove pan, then thoroughly clean. 5. Remove and discard oil pan to case gasket, oil pan screen, and oil pan screen ring. CAUTION: Do not reuse or clean oil pan screen. Filter element material will contaminate transaxle. 6. Reverse procedure to install, noting the following: a. Install new oil pan screen, oil pan screen ring, oil pan to case gasket, and drain plug washer. b. Torque oil pan bolts and drain plug. c. Add transaxle fluid to specifications. Page 1357 Page 1081 Power Distribution Fuse FUEL INJECTOR Fuse FUEL INJECTOR - protects the following circuits: ^ Engine Controls ^ Charging System Cooling Fan High Speed Relay Radiator Cooling Fan Motor Relay: Locations Cooling Fan High Speed Relay Engine View The Cooling Fan High Speed Relay is located in front of the LH fender apron, left of air cleaner assembly. Page 750 Diagram Information and Instructions Powertrain Control Module: Diagram Information and Instructions How to Find and Use These Diagrams Diagrams are presented in three main categories: - Power Distribution Diagrams - System Diagrams - Grounds Diagrams Page 888 Coolant: Fluid Type Specifications COOLING SYSTEM FLUID, PREMIUM Ford Part No. U.S.A (Except Oregon) ............................................................................................................................................................ E2FZ-19549-AA or -B Canada ............................................................................................................ .............................................................................................. CXC-8-B Oregon .................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. F5FZ-19549-CC Ford Specification ................................................................................................................................ ................................................... ESE-M97B44-A COOLING SYSTEM FLUSH Ford Part No. ....................................................................................................................................... ................................................... F1AZ-19A503-A Ford Specification ................................................. ..................................................................................................................................... ESR-M14P7-A Coolant Mixture with Water ................................................................................................................. ...................................................................... 50% Warning: Do not mix coolant types. Check the owners manual or refer to your local dealer for the correct coolant type. Testing and Inspection Air Filter Element: Testing and Inspection CAUTION:Cleaning the Air Cleaner Element (ACL element)(9601) or crankshaft ventilation filter element is not recommended. ^ Hold the air cleaner element in front of a light and carefully inspect it for any splits or cracks. If the air cleaner element is split or cracked, replace it. NOTES: ^ The air cleaner element should be replaced at the specified mileage intervals. ^ All engines (6007) are equipped with dry-type engine air cleaners with replaceable air cleaner elements (960 1). Page 1543 Page 950 Refrigerant Oil: Fluid Type Specifications Refrigerant Oil Polyalkalyene Glycol (PAG) ..................................................................................... Motorcraft Part No. YN-12a, Ford Specification WSH-M1C231-B Page 1723 Page 1301 Page 1680 Page 1211 Page 30 ABS Main Relay: Service and Repair Fig. 66 Anti-Lock Relay Removal 1. Remove engine air cleaner, air cleaner intake tube bolt and air cleaner intake tube. 2. Remove anti-lock relay bracket bolt. 3. Disconnect relay electrical connector, then remove relay. 4. Reverse procedure to install. Torque relay bracket bolts to 61-86 in lb. Page 777 Alignment: Service and Repair Toe The independent front and rear suspension system is designed for minimum maintenance. Other than incorrect front toe, front chamber and rear toe, suspension misalignment can only result from wear or damage to suspension parts or distortion of body structure due to collision damage. TOE ADJUSTMENT Only the righthand link is adjustable. If the thrust angle is not within specification, install an adjustable link on the lefthand side of vehicle, then readjust rear toe. 1. Loosen lateral link locknuts. 2. Turn lateral link adjustment link to adjust. One turn of link is about 0.44 inch. 3. Torque locknuts to 41-47 ft.lbs. Page 973 LG: Light Green PK: Pink O: Orange P: Purple R: Red T: Tan V: Violet W: White Y: Yellow NOTE: Whenever a wire is labeled with two colors, the first color listed is the basic color of the wire, and the second color listed is the stripe marking of the wire. A/T - Mercon V ATF Usage Fluid - A/T: Technical Service Bulletins A/T - Mercon V ATF Usage TSB 06-14-4 07/24/06 MERCON ATF IS BEING REPLACED BY MERCON V ATF AS A SERVICE FLUID. FORD: 1980-1997 Crown Victoria 1981-1997 Mustang, Thunderbird 1981-2003 Escort 1986-1993 Festiva 1986-1997 Taurus 1989-1997 Probe 1994-1997 Aspire 1995-2000 Contour 1980-1996 Bronco 1981-2003 F-150 1981-2004 E-Series, F-Super Duty 1983-1996 Ranger 1986-1996 Aerostar 1991-1997 Explorer 1993-2004 F-53 Motorhome Chassis 1995-1998 Windstar 1997-2004 Expedition 2000-2005 Excursion 2001-2007 Escape 1987-2000 F-B-Series 2000-2007 F-650, F-750 LINCOLN: 1980-1997 Town Car 1981-1997 Continental 1993-1997 Mark VIII 1998-2004 Navigator 2002-2003 Blackwood MERCURY: 1980-1997 Grand Marquis 1981-1997 Cougar 1986-1997 Sable 1987-1999 Tracer 1995-2000 Mystique 1999-2002 Cougar 1993-2002 Villager 1997 Mountaineer 2005-2007 Mariner MERKUR: 1985-1989 XR4TI This article supersedes TSB 01-15-7 to update the vehicle application chart. ISSUE MERCON(R) Automatic Transmission Fluid is being replaced by MERCON(R) V as a service fluid. ACTION Beginning immediately all automatic transmission / transaxle applications requiring MERCON(R) can now be serviced using MERCON(R) V or MERCON(R) Automatic Transmission Fluid or dual usage fluids labeled MERCON(R) / MERCON(R) V. After July 1, 2007, MERCON(R) Automatic Transmission Fluid will no longer be manufactured, therefore, availability of this fluid will only continue for however long it takes to deplete what remains in inventory. SERVICE PROCEDURE Diagrams Ignition Switch Page 1525 Page 1122 Power Distribution Page 743 Page 1222 Pinpoint Tests The pinpoint tests are a step-by-step diagnostic process designed to determine the cause of a condition. It may not always be necessary to follow a pinpoint test to its conclusion. Carry out only the steps necessary to correct the condition. Then, test the system for normal operation. Sometimes, it is necessary to remove various vehicle components to gain access to the component requiring testing. For additional information, REFER to the appropriate Workshop Manual section for removal and installation procedures. Reinstall all components after verifying system operation is normal. Page 1529 Page 395 Figure 1 is a graph that shows how the TPS output voltage changes between engine idle and WOT conditions. The TPS voltage increases when the throttle is depressed. Idle is typically in the 0.4 volt to 1.2 volt range. (Refer to idle voltage range chart.) As the TPS senses plate rotation toward Wide Open Throttle (WOT), the voltage increases. WOT is typically in the 4.0 volt range. A voltmeter, NGS, or SBDS is the recommended test equipment for checking the TPS output. CAUTION: MANY VOLTMETERS WILL AUTOMATICALLY CHANGE RANGES WHEN MEASURING TPS OUTPUT FROM IDLE TO WOT. WHEN A VOLTMETER IS USED TO MEASURE TPS OUTPUT FROM IDLE TO WOT, THE METER SCALES OR CHANGES RANGES AUTOMATICALLY. THERE MAY BE AN ERRONEOUS METER DISPLAY UNTIL THE VOLTMETER HAS LOCKED TO THE APPROPRIATE VOLTAGE READING. THE ERRONEOUS METER DISPLAY DOES NOT REPRESENT A DEFECTIVE TPS. NOTE: IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE "RANGE LOCK' FEATURE ON MANY METERS BE SET FOR CHECKING TPS VOLTAGE. Page 1663 g. Compare the readings. - A match in frequency indicates the problem component or area. - An unmatched test could indicate the concern is caused by the engine, torque converter, or engine accessory. Use the EVA in the rpm mode and check if concern is rpm related. - Example: A vibration is felt in the seat, place the sensor on the console. Record the readings. Place the vibration sensor on the rear axle. Compare the readings. If the frequencies are the same, the axle is the problem component. Also refer to the following chart as a reference to acceptable vibration and noise ranges for the specified components. Vibrate Software(R) Vibrate software(R) (Rotunda tool number 215-00003) is a diagnostic aid which will assist in pinpointing the source of unacceptable vibrations. The Page 1350 Comprehensive Noise/Vibration/Harshness Procedure Technical Service Bulletin # 99-11-1 Date: 990614 Comprehensive Noise/Vibration/Harshness Procedure Article No. 99-11-1 06/14/99 ^ NOISE - TSB SPECIAL FOR NOISE/VIBRATION/HARSHNESS ^ VIBRATION - TSB SPECIAL FOR NOISE/VIBRATION/HARSHNESS FORD: 1995-1997 PROBE, THUNDERBIRD 1995-1999 CONTOUR, CROWN VICTORIA, ESCORT, MUSTANG, TAURUS LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1995-1997 COUGAR 1995-1998 MARK VIII 1995-1999 CONTINENTAL, GRAND MARQUIS, MYSTIQUE, SABLE, TOWN CAR, TRACER 1999 COUGAR 2000 LS LIGHT TRUCK: 1995-1997 F SUPER DUTY, F-250 HD, F-350 1995-1999 ECONOLINE, EXPLORER, F-150, F-250 LD, RANGER, VILLAGER, WINDSTAR 1997-1999 EXPEDITION, MOUNTAINEER 1998-1999 NAVIGATOR 1999 SUPER DUTY F SERIES ISSUE This TSB article is being published as a comprehensive Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) diagnostic procedure. This procedure will also be in 2000 model year and future Workshop Manuals in the NVH Section. ACTION Utilize the flowchart diagrams to work a problem from SYMPTOM to SYSTEM to COMPONENT to CAUSE. The tools and techniques section is expanded to include ALL NVH diagnostic "tools". There are expanded SYMPTOM CHARTS to assist with problem resolution. A revised NVH course is available through regional training centers. The course is "NVH Principals and Diagnostics", course code # 30s03t0. This course utilizes the same techniques that are in the revised diagnostic procedure. Refer to the Noise, Vibration and Harshness Work Shop Manual Section that is included. OTHER APPLICABLE ARTICLES: NONE WARRANTY STATUS: INFORMATION ONLY OASIS CODES: 497000, 597997, 701000, 702000, 703000 SECTION 100-04 Noise, Vibration and Harshness VEHICLE APPLICATION: Noise, Vibration and Harshness CONTENTS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) Acceptable Noise, Vibration and Harshness Diagnostic Theory Diagnostic Process Glossary of Terms Tools and Techniques DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) With Automatic Transaxle Throttle Position Sensor: Adjustments With Automatic Transaxle 1. Disconnect the electrical connector from the throttle position sensor. 2. Using a volt-ohmmeter, connect the volt-ohmmeter to the IDL and E terminals on the throttle position sensor. Throttle Position (TP) Sensor 3. Loosen the throttle position sensor mounting screws. Throttle Position (TP) Sensor 4. Insert a 0.250 mm (0.010 inch) feeler gauge between the throttle stop screw and the stop lever. 5. Rotate the throttle position sensor clockwise approximately 30 degrees, then rotate counterclockwise until continuity exists. 6. Replace the 0.250 mm (0.010 inch) feeler gauge with a 0.40 mm (0.0160 inch) feeler gauge and insert it between the throttle stop screw and the stop lever. 7. Verify continuity no longer exists. NOTE: If there is still continuity, repeat steps 4 through 7. 8. Tighten the throttle position sensor mounting screws while making sure not to move the throttle position sensor from its position. Throttle Position (TP) Sensor 9. Open the throttle plate to wide open throttle position several times and verify that the resistance between E and Vt terminals on the throttle position sensor is approximately 5K ohms. Page 1389 Page 905 Parts Block WARRANTY STATUS: Information Only Disclaimer With Automatic Transaxle Throttle Position Sensor: Description and Operation With Automatic Transaxle Throttle Sensor PURPOSE Provides Powertrain Control Module (PCM) with signal related to throttle open angle. CONSTRUCTION Sensor consists of a combination potentiometer and idle switch. OPERATION Sensor is a potentiometer attached to the throttle body and splined to the throttle shaft. The potentiometer rotates with the shaft as the throttle opens and closes. Varying potentiometer resistance alters the reference voltage supplied by the PCM, allowing it to read throttle valve opening angle. This input is used in PCM calculations for fuel injection quantity and timing, idle speed control, purge control, A/C cut-off, ignition timing control. Page 1668 Computer Related Diagnostic Information Heated Oxygen (HO2S) Sensor: Testing and Inspection Computer Related Diagnostic Information Ford provides Trouble Code/Symptom driven diagnostics for this component. Diagnostic procedures can be found in: Aspire - Pinpoint Test O2S. All others - Pinpoint Test HO2S. See: Powertrain Management/Computers and Control Systems/Testing and Inspection/Pinpoint Tests/Pinpoint Tests/HO2S - Heated Oxygen Sensor For complete diagnostics, refer to Computers and Control Systems / Testing and Inspection. See: Powertrain Management/Computers and Control Systems/Testing and Inspection Page 510 Throttle Position Sensor: Description and Operation With Manual Transaxle Throttle Switch PURPOSE Provides the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) with a throttle fully closed or throttle fully open signal by means of separate contacts within the sensor. CONSTRUCTION Consists of 2 switches sensing only closed or wide open throttle positions. These are referred to as the Idle (IDL) switch and Wide Open Throttle (WOT) switch. OPERATION The sensor is rotated by and in conjunction with the throttle shaft so that sensor and shaft positions correspond when the sensor is properly adjusted. At intermediate throttle positions (between fully closed and fully opened), neither sensor contact provides the PCM with a signal. The TP switch inputs to the PCM an idle condition signal to cut off fuel flow during deceleration and control engine idle speed. Wide open throttle input is used to modify fuel flow for maximum engine power output. The PCM uses this information to modify air/fuel mixture, idle speed, injector timing, ignition timing, fuel pressure and purge flow. Page 487 Inertia Fuel Shutoff Switch: Locations Wagon Inertia Fuel Shutoff Switch The Inertia Fuel Shutoff Switch is located in the RH side of the cargo area, above the wheel well. Page 1286 engine's crankshaft is the point of reference for vibration diagnosis. Every rotating component will have an angular velocity that is faster, slower, or the same as the engine's crankshaft. Vibrate software® calculates the angular velocity of each component and graphically represents these velocities on a computer screen and on a printed vibration worksheet. The following steps outline how Vibrate software® helps diagnose a vibration concern: ^ Enter the vehicle information. Vibrate will do all the calculations and display a graph showing tire, driveshaft and engine vibrations. ^ Print a Vibration Worksheet graph. The printed graph is to be used during the road test. ^ Road test the vehicle at the speed where the vibration is most noticeable. Record the vibration frequency (rpm) and the engine rpm on the worksheet graph. The point on the graph where the vibration frequency (rpm) reading and the engine rpm reading intersect indicates the specific component group causing the concern. - An EVA or equivalent tool capable of measuring vibration frequency and engine rpm will be needed. ^ Provides pictures of diagnostic procedures to aid in testing components. ChassisEAR An electronic listening device used to quickly identify noise and the location under the chassis while the vehicle is being road tested. The chassisEARs can identify the noise and location of damaged/worn wheel bearings, CV joints, brakes, springs, axle bearings or driveshaft carrier bearings. EngineEAR An electronic listening device used to detect even the faintest noises. The EngineEARs can detect the noise of damaged/worn bearings in generators, water pumps, A/C compressors and power steering pumps. They are also used to identify noisy lifters, exhaust manifold leaks, chipped gear teeth and for detecting wind noise. The EngineEAR has a sensing tip, amplifier, and headphones. The directional sensing tip is used to listen to the various components. Point the sensing tip at the suspect component and adjust the volume with the amplifier. Placing the tip in direct contact with a component will reveal structure-borne noise and vibrations, generated by or passing through, the component. Various volume levels can reveal different sounds. Ultrasonic Leak Detector The Ultrasonic Leak Detector is used to detect wind noises caused by leaks and gaps in areas where there is weather-stripping or other sealing material. It is also used to identify A/C leaks, vacuum leaks and evaporative emission noises. The Ultrasonic Leak Detector includes a multi-directional transmitter (operating in the ultrasonic range) and a hand-held detector. The transmitter is placed inside the vehicle. On the outside of the vehicle, the hand-held detector is used to sweep the area of the suspected leak. As the source of the leak is approached, a beeping sound is produced which increases in both speed and frequency. Squeak and Rattle Repair Kit The squeak and rattle repair kit contains lubricants and self-adhesive materials that can be used to eliminate interior and exterior squeaks and rattles. The kit consists of the following materials: ^ PVC (soft foam) tape ^ Urethane (hard foam) tape ^ Flocked (black fuzzy) tape ^ UHMW (frosted) tape ^ Squeak and rattle oil tube Page 1536 Page 1376 Component Tests Diagnostic Process 1: Customer Interview 2: Pre-Drive Check 3: Preparing for the Road Test 4: Verify the Customer Concern 5: Road Test 6: Check OASIS/TSBs/Repair History 7: Diagnostic Procedure NVH Condition and Symptom Categories Pinpoint Tests Symptom Charts GENERAL PROCEDURES Exhaust System Neutralizing Powertrain/Drivetrain Mount Neutralizing Wheel Bearing Check Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) Noise is any undesirable sound, usually unpleasant in nature. Vibration is any motion, shaking or trembling, that can be felt or seen when an object moves back and forth or up and down. Harshness is a ride quality issue where the vehicle's response to the road transmits sharply to the customer. Harshness normally describes a firmer than usual response from the suspension system. Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) is a term used to describe these conditions, which customers sense and result in varying degrees of dissatisfaction. Although, a certain level of NVH caused by road and environmental conditions is normal. This section is designed to aid in the diagnosis, testing and repair of NVH concerns. Acceptable Noise, Vibration and Harshness All internal combustion engines and drivelines produce some noise and vibration; operating in a real world environment adds noise that is not subject to control. Vibration isolators, mufflers and dampers reduce these to acceptable levels. A driver who is unfamiliar with a vehicle can think that some sounds are abnormal when actually the sounds are normal for the vehicle type. For example, Traction-Lok(R) differentials produce a slight noise on slow turns after extended highway driving. This is acceptable and has no detrimental effect on the locking axle function. As a technician, it is very important to be familiar with vehicle features and know how they relate to NVH concerns and their diagnosis. If, for example, the vehicle has automatic overdrive it is important to test drive the vehicle both in and out of overdrive mode. Diagnostic Theory The shortest route to an accurate diagnosis results from: ^ system knowledge, including comparison with a known good system. ^ system history, including repair history and usage patterns. ^ condition history, especially any relationship to repairs or sudden change. ^ knowledge of probable causes ^ using a systematic diagnostic method that divides the system into related areas. The diagnosis and correction of noise, vibration and harshness concerns requires: ^ a road or system test to determine the exact nature of the concern. ^ an analysis of the possible causes. ^ testing to verify the cause. ^ repairing any concerns found. ^ a road test or system test to make sure the concern has been corrected or brought back to within a acceptable range. Diagnostic Process A good diagnostic process is a logical sequence of steps that lead to the identification of a causal system. The following flowcharts are a graphic representation of the diagnostic process. Use the flowcharts as follows: ^ Choose the appropriate flowchart. ^ Identify the operating condition that the vehicle is exhibiting. Page 172 Wheel Speed Sensor: Locations Right Rear Full Body View (Hatchback) The Right Rear Anti-Lock Brake System Wheel Speed Sensor is located on right rear wheel assembly. Vehicle - Towing Behind RVs Guidelines Towing Information: Technical Service Bulletins Vehicle - Towing Behind RVs Guidelines Article No. 98-5A-12 03/18/98 ^ BRAKES - WEIGHT LIMITATIONS FOR TOWING ^ RECREATIONAL VEHICLES - WEIGHT RATINGS FOR UNBRAKED TOWING LESS THAN GROSS COMBINATION WEIGHT RATING (GCWR) ^ TOWING BEHIND RECREATIONAL VEHICLES - RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES ^ TRANSAXLE/TRANSMISSION/TRANSFER CASE - VEHICLES TOWED BEHIND RECREATIONAL VEHICLES - RECOMMENDED TOWING GUIDELINES FORD: 1988-93 FESTIVA 1988-94 TEMPO 1989-96 PROBE, TAURUS SHO 1991-97 ESCORT 1994-96 ASPIRE LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1988-94 TOPAZ 1991-94 CAPRI 1991-97 TRACER LIGHT TRUCK: 1988-96 AEROSTAR, BRONCO, E-350, F SUPER DUTY, F-250, F-350, F-53 MOTORHOME, RANGER 1988-97 F-150 1991-96 EXPLORER 1997 MOUNTAINEER ISSUE: Many motorhome owners tow a vehicle when traveling. Improper techniques can "overload" the brake system of the tow vehicle or damage the drivetrain of the vehicle being towed. ACTION: Use the information and charts shown in this TSB article to properly match tow vehicle, towed vehicle and towing method. TOWING METHODS 1. TRAILER - The vehicle is loaded onto and secured to a trailer and simply acts as "secured" cargo. 2. DOLLY - The vehicle is "partially" loaded and partially towed. Either front or rear wheels are loaded and secured to a "towing dolly" and the other wheels roll on the road. 3. TOW BAR - All of the vehicle wheels roll on the pavement. The towed vehicle's steering column must be unlocked so that it can track correctly behind the tow vehicle. WEIGHT RATINGS AND BRAKES ^ GVWR (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating) - is the MAXIMUM allowable weight of the towing vehicle, passengers and cargo ^ GCWR (Gross Combined Weight Rating) - is the MAXIMUM allowable weight of the towing vehicle and the weight of the trailer or vehicle being towed, including all passengers and cargo ^ BRAKES - The motorhome brakes are designed and rated for the GVWR of that vehicle and will provide adequate braking for trailers and towing vehicles up to 680 kg (1500 lb) Page 1551 Diagrams Fog Lamp Switch Page 1754 Page 728 Page 851 Air Filter Element: Service and Repair REMOVE 1. Loosen the engine air cleaner tube clamp (9C632) at the Volume Air Flow Meter (VAF)( 1 2B529) and disconnect the engine air intake resonator (9F763) (chamber) from the VAF meter. 2. Disconnect the VAF meter electrical connector. 3. Remove the engine air cleaner upper cover screws. 4. Remove the VAF meter and the engine air cleaner upper cover. 5. Remove the air cleaner element (96O 1). INSTALL ^ To install, reverse the removal procedure. ^ Tighten the engine air cleaner upper cover screws to 8-11 Nm (69-95 in lb). Park/Neutral Position Switch (Manual Transaxle Only) Transmission Range Switch: Service and Repair Park/Neutral Position Switch (Manual Transaxle Only) Park/Neutral Position Switch REMOVAL 1. Raise and support the vehicle. 2. Drain the transmission fluid. 3. Disconnect the Park/Neutral Position (PNP) switch electrical connector. 4. Remove the PNP switch and discard the gasket. INSTALLATION 1. Install the PNP switch using a new gasket. 2. Tighten the switch to 20-29 Nm (14-22 lb ft). 4. Connect the electrical connector. 5. Lower the vehicle. 6. Fill the transaxle with fluid. 7. Ensure proper operation of the PNP switch. Page 547 Impact Sensor: Locations Right Front Primary Crash Sensor Engine View The Right Front Primary Crash Sensor is located at the right front of the engine compartment, near radiator. Page 1299 Page 1567 Powertrain/Drivetrain Mount Neutralizing WARNING: The electrical power to the air suspension system must be shut off prior to hoisting, jacking or towing an air suspension vehicle. This can be accomplished by turning off the air suspension switch. Failure to do so can result in unexpected inflation or deflation of the air springs, which can result in shifting of the vehicle during these operations. 1. Raise and support the vehicle. 2. Loosen, but do not remove, the powertrain/drivetrain mount fasteners. 3. Lower the vehicle. 4. CAUTION: Do not twist or strain the powertrain/drivetrain mounts. Move the vehicle in forward and reverse (2-4 ft). 5. Raise and support the vehicle. 6. Tighten the powertrain/drivetrain mount fasteners. 7. Lower the vehicle. 8. Test the system for normal operation. Exhaust System Neutralizing WARNING: Exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide, which is harmful to health and potentially lethal. Repair exhaust system leaks immediately. Never operate the engine in an enclosed area. WARNING: Exhaust system components are hot. Note: Neutralize the exhaust system to relieve strain on mounts which can be sufficiently bound up to transmit vibration as if grounded. 1. WARNING: The electrical power to the air suspension system must be shut off prior to hoisting, jacking or towing an air suspension vehicle. This can be accomplished by turning off the air suspension switch. Failure to do so can result in unexpected inflation or deflation of the air springs, which can result in shifting of the vehicle during these operations. Page 565 module will not deploy when not required. A/C - Refrigerant Oil Refill Capacity Refrigerant Oil: Technical Service Bulletins A/C - Refrigerant Oil Refill Capacity Article No. 97-15-5 07/21/97 AIR CONDITIONING - OIL REFILL CAPACITY CHART - SERVICE TIP FORD: 1994 TEMPO 1994-97 ASPIRE, PROBE, THUNDERBIRD 1994-98 CROWN VICTORIA, ESCORT, MUSTANG, TAURUS 1995-98 CONTOUR LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1994 CAPRI, TOPAZ 1994-97 COUGAR 1994-98 CONTINENTAL, GRAND MARQUIS, MARK VIII, SABLE, TOWN CAR, TRACER 1995-98 MYSTIQUE LIGHT TRUCK: 1994-96 BRONCO 1994-97 AEROSTAR 1994-98 ECONOLINE, EXPLORER, F-150-350 SERIES, RANGER, VILLAGER 1995-98 WINDSTAR 1997-98 EXPEDITION, MOUNTAINEER 1998 NAVIGATOR ISSUE: This TSB article will provide an easy and quick reference chart for determining the correct amount of refrigerant oil to use when servicing an A/C system. Page 447 LG: Light Green PK: Pink O: Orange P: Purple R: Red T: Tan V: Violet W: White Y: Yellow NOTE: Whenever a wire is labeled with two colors, the first color listed is the basic color of the wire, and the second color listed is the stripe marking of the wire. Page 1178 Page 34 Electronic Brake Control Module: Diagrams Anti-Lock Brake Control Module (C386) Page 1490 ^ When was it first noticed? ^ Did it appear suddenly or gradually? ^ Did any abnormal occurrence coincide with or proceed it's appearance? Use the information gained from the customer to accurately begin the diagnostic process. 2. Pre-Drive Check It is important to do a pre-drive check before road testing the vehicle. A pre-drive check verifies that the vehicle is relatively safe to drive and eliminates any obvious faults on the vehicle. The pre-drive check consists of a brief visual inspection. During this brief inspection, take note of anything that will compromise safety during the road test and make those repairs/adjustments before taking the vehicle on the road. 3. Preparing For the Road Test Observe the following when preparing for the road test: ^ Review the information recorded on the NVH Diagnostic Guide. It is important to know the specific concern the customer has with the vehicle. ^ Do not be misled by the reported location of the noise/vibration. The cause can actually be some distance away. ^ Remember that the vibrating source component (originator) may only generate a small vibration. This small vibration can in turn cause a larger vibration/noise to emanate from another receiving component (reactor), due to contact with other components (transfer path). ^ Conduct the road test on a quiet street where it is safe to duplicate the vibration/noise. The ideal testing route is an open, low-traffic area where it is possible to operate the vehicle at the speed in which the condition occurs. ^ If possible, lower the radio antenna in order to minimize turbulence. Identify anything that could potentially make noise or be a source of wind noise. Inspect the vehicle for add-on items that create vibration/noise. Turn off the radio and the heating and cooling system blower. ^ The engine speed is an important factor in arriving at a final conclusion. Therefore, connect an accurate tachometer to the engine, even if the vehicle has a tachometer. Use a tachometer that has clearly defined increments of less than 50 rpm. This ensures an exact engine speed reading. 4. Verify the Customer Concern Verify the customer concern by carrying out a road test, an engine run-up test, or both. The decision to carry out a road test, an engine run-up test, or both depends on the type of NVH concern. A road test may be necessary if the symptom relates to the suspension system or is sensitive to torque. A drive engine run-up (DERU) or a neutral engine run-up (NERU) test identifies noises and vibrations relating to engine and drivetrain rpm. Remember, a condition will not always be identifiable by carrying out these tests, however, they will eliminate many possibilities if carried out correctly. 5. Road Test Note: It may be necessary to have the customer ride along or drive the vehicle to point out the concern. During the road test. take into consideration the customer's driving habits and the driving conditions. The customer's concern just may be an acceptable operating condition for that vehicle. The following is a brief overview of each test in the order in which it appears. A review of this information helps to quickly identify the most appropriate process necessary to make a successful diagnosis. After reviewing this information, select and carry out the appropriate test(s), proceeding to the next step of this process. ^ The Slow Acceleration Test is normally the first test to carry out when identifying an NVH concern, especially when a road test with the customer is not possible. ^ The Heavy Acceleration Test helps to determine if the concern is torque-related. ^ The Neutral Coast Down Speed Test helps to determine if the concern is vehicle speed-related. ^ The Downshift Speed Test helps to determine if the concern is engine speed-related. ^ The Steering Input Test helps to determine how the wheel bearings and other suspension components contribute to a vehicle speed-related concern. ^ The Brake Test helps to identify vibrations or noise that are brake related. ^ The Road Test Over Bumps helps isolate a noise that occurs when driving over a rough or bumpy surface. ^ The Engine Run-Up Tests consist of the Neutral Run-up Test and the Engine Load Test. These tests help to determine if the concern is engine Page 1139 Power Distribution Lug Nuts - Proper Installation/Torqueing Procedure Wheel Fastener: All Technical Service Bulletins Lug Nuts - Proper Installation/Torqueing Procedure Article No. 98-5A-4 ^ BRAKES - PREVENTING BRAKE VIBRATION - SERVICE TIP ^ WHEELS - PROPER LUG TORQUE PROCEDURES - SERVICE TIP FORD: 1972-97 THUNDERBIRD 1976-86 LTD 1976-97 MUSTANG 1981-97 CROWN VICTORIA 1982-88 EXP 1982-98 ESCORT 1984-94 TEMPO 1986-97 TAURUS 1988-93 FESTIVA 1989-97 PROBE 1994-97 ASPIRE 1995-98 CONTOUR LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1979-83 MONARCH, ZEPHYR 1979-97 COUGAR 1980-83 MARK VI 1980-98 CONTINENTAL, TOWN CAR 1981-86 LYNX 1983-86 MARQUIS 1984-92 MARK VII 1984-94 TOPAZ 1986-97 SABLE 1987-89 TRACER 1987-97 GRAND MARQUIS 1991-94 CAPRI 1991-97 TRACER 1993-98 MARK VIII 1995-98 MYSTIQUE LIGHT TRUCK: 1979-96 BRONCO 1979-97 ECONOLINE, F-150-350 SERIES 1984-90 BRONCO II 1984-97 RANGER 1986-97 AEROSTAR 1988-97 F SUPER DUTY 1991-97 EXPLORER 1993-97 VILLAGER 1995-98 WINDSTAR 1997 EXPEDITION 1998 NAVIGATOR ISSUE: The use of air impact tools to tighten wheel lug nuts can lead to overtightened and/or unevenly tightened wheel lug nuts. Air impact tools typically used for wheel lug nut removal and installation can generate up to 475 N.m (350 lb-ft) of torque. Overtightened and/or unevenly torqued wheel lug nuts may cause: ^ Brake vibration ^ Distortion of the wheel hub ^ Distortion of the brake rotor Page 293 Volume Air Flow (VAF) Meter Page 1215 Locations Electronic Brake Control Module: Locations Full Body View (Hatchback) The Anti-Lock Brake System Control Module is mounted on the floor, under the passenger seat. Mass Air Flow Sensor - Assembly Replacement Volume Air Flow (VAF) Sensor: All Technical Service Bulletins Mass Air Flow Sensor - Assembly Replacement Article No. 96-22-5 10/21/96 MASS AIR FLOW SENSOR - REPLACEMENT AS AN ASSEMBLY - SERVICE TIP FORD: 1992-94 TEMPO 1992-97 CROWN VICTORIA, ESCORT, MUSTANG, PROBE, TAURUS, THUNDERBIRD 1994-97 ASPIRE 1995-97 CONTOUR LINCOLN-MERCURY: 1991-94 CAPRI 1992-94 TOPAZ 1992-97 CONTINENTAL, COUGAR, GRAND MARQUIS, SABLE, TOWN CAR, TRACER 1993-97 MARK VIII 1995-97 MYSTIQUE LIGHT TRUCK: 1992-97 AEROSTAR, EXPLORER, RANGER 1993-97 VILLAGER 1994-96 BRONCO 1994-97 ECONOLINE 1995-97 F-150, WINDSTAR 1997 EXPEDITION, MOUNTAINEER ISSUE: The Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor is not designed to be removed from its body (die-cast or plastic) for servicing. The sensing elements located inside the by-pass tube can be damaged by poking/probing/touching. ACTION: Service the MAF sensor as an assembly (refer to Figure 1). WARNING: DO NOT DISASSEMBLE THE MAF SENSOR. Page 1424 Page 734 Page 1583 NOTE: REFER TO THE APPROPRIATE SERVICE MANUAL OR THE CHART IN FIGURE 1 FOR THE CORRECT WHEEL LUG NUT TORQUE SPECIFICATION. THE CHART IN FIGURE 1 ALSO PROVIDES THE CORRECT "ACCUTORO" LUG NUT SOCKET TO USE. The "ACCUTORO" socket is intended for lug nut installation, not removal. When using the "ACCUTORO" socket, the output torque of the air impact tool must be set to 217-339 N.m (160-250 lb-ft), usually this will be the lowest setting on the air impact tool. The "ACCUTORO" lug nut sockets are available through Rotunda Equipment. The four-piece set (164-R0314) fits most Ford Motor Company cars and light trucks. The tool set consists of four (4) lug nut sockets and a storage case. The set can be ordered by calling Rotunda Equipment at 1-800-ROT-UNDA (768-8632). CAUTION: AIR IMPACT TOOLS SHOULD NOT BE USED TO TIGHTEN WHEEL LUG NUTS UNLESS THE "ACCUTORO" LUG NUT SOCKET OF THE CORRECT SPECIFICATION IS USED. NOTE: DO NOT USE AIR IMPACT TOOLS ON LOCKING WHEEL LUG NUTS. THEY ARE TO BE HAND-TORQUED ONLY. OTHER APPLICABLE ARTICLES: NONE SUPERSEDES: 97-17-6 WARRANTY STATUS: INFORMATION ONLY OASIS CODES: 301000, 303000, 306000 Page 913 Fluid - Differential: Fluid Type Specifications KEY TO LUBRICATION ABBREVIATIONS NOTE: Some manufacturer lubricant names may differ from the following list. If the manufacturer does not recommend a specific lubricant, use the following. AF Dexron(r)-III Automatic Transmission Fluid AP ATF-PLUS(r) Automatic Transmission Fluid BJ Suspension Lubricant BL Brake Lubricant CC Motor Oil, API Service CC CD Motor Oil, API Service CD CE Motor Oil, API Service CE CF-4 Motor Oil, API Service CF-4 DC Distributor Cam Lubricant EC Ethylene Glycol Coolant EP Extreme Pressure Gear Oil FA Automatic Transmission Fluid, Type F GC Wheel Bearing Grease, NLGI Classification GC GF-1 Motor Oil, API Service GF-1 (Starburst) GL-1 Gear Oil, API Service GL-1 GL-4 Gear Oil, API Service GL-4 GL-5 Gear Oil, API Service GL-5 GL-5* GL-5 Gear Oil for Limited Slip Differentials GLS Gear Lubricant, Special HB Hydraulic Brake Fluid, SAE J1703, DOT-3 or 4 HBH Hydraulic Brake Fluid, Extra Heavy Duty HG High Temperature Grease HP Hypoid Gear Oil HP* Hypoid Gear Oil for Limited Slip or Traction-Lok Differentials LB Chassis Grease, NLGI Classification LB LL Steering Linkage Lubricant LM Lithium Multipurpose Grease LS Steering Gear Lubricant MA Mercon(r) Automatic Transmission Fluid MH Manifold Heat Riser Solvent MO Motor Oil, Any API Service Classification PC Carburetor Cleaner PS Power Steering Fluid SF Motor Oil, API service SF SG Motor Oil, API service SG SH Motor Oil, API service SH SLF Special Lubricant - Fluid SLS Special Lubricant - Spray WB Wheel Bearing Grease Page 1260 3. Grip each front tire at the top and bottom and move the wheel inward and outward while lifting the weight of the tire off the front wheel bearing. 4. If the tire and wheel (hub) is loose on the spindle, does not rotate freely, or has a rough feeling when spun, carry out one of the following: ^ On vehicles with inner and outer bearings, Inspect the bearings and cups for wear or damage. Adjust or install new bearings and cups as necessary. ^ On vehicles with one sealed bearing, install a new wheel hub. Refer to the appropriate workshop manual for the service procedures. Page 1470 3. Grip each front tire at the top and bottom and move the wheel inward and outward while lifting the weight of the tire off the front wheel bearing. 4. If the tire and wheel (hub) is loose on the spindle, does not rotate freely, or has a rough feeling when spun, carry out one of the following: ^ On vehicles with inner and outer bearings, Inspect the bearings and cups for wear or damage. Adjust or install new bearings and cups as necessary. ^ On vehicles with one sealed bearing, install a new wheel hub. Refer to the appropriate workshop manual for the service procedures. Page 1143 Instrument Panel Fuse Panel (Part 1 Of 2) Component Tests Power Steering Pressure Switch: Testing and Inspection Component Tests 1. Disconnect Power Steering Pressure (PSP) sensor connector. 2. Start engine and check for sensor continuity with an ohmmeter. While turning, sensor should show continuity. With wheel in straight ahead position (not being turned), there should be no continuity. 3. If not as specified, replace sensor. Page 530 CKP Test Schematic Page 470 1. Look at the BARO PID. Refer to the Barometric Pressure Reference Chart in this article. At sea level, BARO should read about 159 Hz (29.91 in. Hg). As a reference, Denver, Colorado at 1524 meters (5000 ft.) altitude should be about 144 Hz (24.88 in.Hg). Normal learned BARO variability is up to +/- 6 Hz (+/- 2 in. Hg.). If BARO indicates a higher altitude than you are not at (7 or more Hz lower than expected), you may have MAF contamination. If available, Service Bay Diagnostic System (SBDS) has a Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor that can be used as a barometric pressure reference. Use "MAP/BARO" test under "Powertrain," "Testers and Meters." Ignore the hookup screen. Connect GP2 to the reference MAP on the following screen. NOTE REMEMBER THAT MOST WEATHER SERVICES REPORT A LOCAL BAROMETRIC PRESSURE THAT HAS BEEN CORRECTED TO SEA LEVEL. THE BARO PID, ON THE OTHER HAND, REPORTS THE ACTUAL BAROMETRIC PRESSURE FOR THE ALTITUDE THE VEHICLE IS BEING OPERATED IN. LOCAL WEATHER CONDITIONS (HIGH AND LOW PRESSURE AREAS) WILL CHANGE THE LOCAL BAROMETRIC PRESSURE BY SEVERAL INCHES OF MERCURY (+/- 3 Hz, +/- 1 in. Hg.). NOTE BARO IS UPDATED ONLY WHEN THE VEHICLE IS AT HIGH THROTTLE OPENINGS. THEREFORE, A VEHICLE WHICH IS DRIVEN DOWN FROM A HIGHER ALTITUDE MAY NOT HAVE HAD AN OPPORTUNITY TO UPDATE THE BARO VALUE IN KAM. IF YOU ARE NOT CONFIDENT THAT BARO HAS BEEN UPDATED, PERFORM THREE OR FOUR HEAVY, SUSTAINED ACCELERATIONS AT GREATER THAN HALF-THROTTLE TO ALLOW BARO TO UPDATE. 2. On a fully warmed up engine, look at Long Term Fuel Trim at idle, in Neutral, A/C off, (LONGFT1 and/or LONGFT2 PIDs). If it is more negative than -12%, the fuel system has learned lean corrections which may be due to the MAF sensor over-estimating air flow at idle. Note that both Banks 1 and 2 will exhibit negative corrections for 2-bank system. If only one bank of a 2-bank system has negative corrections, the MAF sensor is probably not contaminated. 3. On a fully warmed up engine, look at MAF voltage at idle, in Neutral, A/C off (MAF V PID). If it's 30% greater than the nominal MAF V voltage listed in the Powertrain Control/Emissions Diagnosis (PC/ED) Diagnostic Value Reference Charts for your vehicle, or greater than 1.1 volts as a rough guide, the MAF sensor is over-estimating air flow at idle. 4. If at least tow of the previous three steps are true, proceed to disconnect the MAF sensor connector. This puts the vehicle into Failure Mode and Effects Management (FMEM). In FMEM mode, air flow is inferred by using rpm and throttle position instead of reading the MAF sensor. (In addition, the BARO value is reset to a base/unlearned value.) If the lean driveability symptoms go away, the MAF sensor is probably contaminated and should be replaced. If the lean driveability symptoms do not go away, go to the PC/ED Service Manual for the appropriate diagnostics. NOTE DUE TO INCREASINGLY STRINGENT EMISSION/OBDII REQUIREMENTS, IT IS POSSIBLE FOR SOME VEHICLES WITH MAF SENSOR CONTAMINATION TO SET FUEL SYSTEM DTCs AND ILLUMINATE THE MIL WITH NO DRIVEABILITY CONCERNS. DISCONNECTING THE MAF ON THESE VEHICLES WILL, THEREFORE, PRODUCE NO IMPROVEMENTS IN DRIVEABILITY. IN THESE CASES, IF THE BARO, LONGFT1, LONGFT2, AND MAF V PIDs INDICATE THAT THE MAF IS CONTAMINATED, PROCEED TO REPLACE THE MAF SENSOR. After replacing the MAF sensor, disconnect the vehicle battery (5 minutes, minimum to reset KAM, or on newer vehicles, use the "KAM Reset" feature on the New Generation Star (NGS) Tester and verify that the lean driveability symptoms are gone. OTHER APPLICABLE ARTICLES:: NONE WARRANTY STATUS: INFORMATION ONLY OASIS CODES: 206000, 610000, 610500, 610600, 610700, 611000, 611500, 612000, 612500, 614000, 614500, 614600, 698298 Page 119 LG: Light Green PK: Pink O: Orange P: Purple R: Red T: Tan V: Violet W: White Y: Yellow NOTE: Whenever a wire is labeled with two colors, the first color listed is the basic color of the wire, and the second color listed is the stripe marking of the wire. Page 540 Ignition Switch: Service and Repair 1. Remove multi-function switch. 2. Disconnect ignition switch electrical connector. 3. Remove three mounting screws, then the ignition switch. 4. Reverse procedure to install. Page 1140 Power Distribution Page 1518 Page 1535 Park/Neutral Position Switch (MTX) Transmission Range Switch: Testing and Inspection Park/Neutral Position Switch (MTX) Neutral Switch Testing 1. Unplug switch connector. 2. Connect ohmmeter across switch terminals and check switch continuity. 3. In NEUTRAL, there should be continuity. In any other gear, there should be no continuity. 4. If not as specified, replace switch. Page 1478 The equal distribution of weight on each side of the centerline, so that when the wheel and tire assembly spins, there is no tendency for the assembly to move from side-to-side (wobble). Dynamically unbalanced wheel and tire assemblies can cause wheel shimmy. Engine Imbalance A condition in which an engine's center mass is not concentric to the rotation center. Excessive motion. Engine Misfire When combustion in one or more cylinders does not occur or occurs at the wrong time. Engine Shake An exaggerated engine movement or vibration that directly increases in frequency as the engine speed increases. It is caused by non-equal distribution of mass in the rotating or reciprocating components. Flexible Coupling A flexible joint. Float A drive mode on the dividing line between cruise and coast where the throttle setting matches the engine speed with the road speed. Flutter Mid to high (100-200 Hz) intermittent sound due to air flow. Similar to a flag flapping in the wind. Frequency The rate at which a cycle occurs within a given time. Gravelly Feel A grinding or growl in a component, similar to the feel experienced when driving on gravel. Grind An abrasive sound, similar to using a grinding wheel, or rubbing sand paper against wood. Hiss Steady high frequency (200-800 Hz) noise. Vacuum leak sound. Hoot A steady low frequency tone (50-500 Hz), sounds like blowing over a long neck bottle. Howl A mid-range frequency noise between drumming and whine. Hum Mid-frequency (200-800 Hz) steady sound, like a small fan motor. Also described as a howl. Hz Hertz; a frequency measured in cycles per second. Imbalance Out of balance; heavier on one side than the other. In a rotating component, imbalance often causes vibration. Inboard Toward the centerline of the vehicle. Intensity The physical quality of sound that relates to the strength of the vibration (measured in decibels). The higher the sound's amplitude, the higher the intensity and vice versa. Isolate To separate the influence of one component to another. Knock A heavy, loud, repetitious sound, like a knock on the door. Moan A constant, low-frequency (100-200 Hz) tone. Also described as a hum. Neutral Engine Run-Up (NERU) Test Page 758 Page 1459 Page 1284 The EVA allows for a systematic collection of information that is necessary to accurately diagnose and repair NVH problems. For the best results, carry out the test as follows: a. Test drive the vehicle with the vibration sensor inside the vehicle. b. Place the sensor in the vehicle according to feel. - If the condition is felt through the steering wheel, the source is most likely in the front of the vehicle. - A vibration that is felt in the seat or floor only will most likely be found in the driveline, drive axle or rear wheels and tires. c. Record the readings. Also note when the condition begins when it reaches maximum intensity. and if it tends to diminish above/below a certain speed. - Frequencies should be read in the "avg" mode. - Frequencies have a range of plus or minus 2. A reading of 10 Hz can be displayed as an 8 Hz through 12 Hz. d. Determine what the normal frequency is for the vehicle at a specified speed. Multiply the rear axle ratio by the Hz (1 Hz per every 5 mph). Example: A vehicle travelling 50 mph with a 3.08 rear axle ratio, the acceptable amount of Hz for the vehicle at that speed would be 10 (1 Hz per every 5 mph) X 3.08 (rear axle ratio) = 30.8 Hz. e. Place the vibration sensor on or near the suspect area outside the vehicle. f. Continue the road test, driving the vehicle at the speed the symptom occurs, and take another reading. Page 1177 Place a dollar bill or 3x5 card between the weatherstrip and the sealing surface, then close the door. Slowly withdraw the bill or 3x5 card after the door is closed and check the amount of pressure on the weatherstrip. There should be a medium amount of resistance as the dollar bill or 3x5 card is withdrawn. Continue around the entire seal area. If there is little or no resistance, this indicates insufficient contact to form a good seal. At these points, the door, the glass, or the weatherstrip is out of alignment. Diagnosis and Testing Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) Special Service Tool(s) Diagnostic Process Page 1687 Page 1656 ^ Advance through the flowchart from left to right. ^ Match the operating condition to the symptom. ^ Verify the symptom. ^ Identify which category or system could cause the symptom. ^ Refer to the diagnostic symptom chart that the flowchart refers to. Glossary of Terms Acceleration-Light An increase in speed at less than half throttle. Acceleration-Medium An increase in speed at half to nearly full throttle, such as 0-97 km/h (0-60 mph) in approximately 30 seconds. Acceleration-Heavy An increase in speed at one-half to full throttle, such as 0-97 km/h (0-60 mph) in approximately 20 seconds. Ambient Temperature The surrounding or prevailing temperature. Amplitude The quantity or amount of energy produced by a vibrating component (G force). An extreme vibration has a high amplitude. A mild vibration has a low amplitude. Backlash Gear teeth clearance. Boom Low frequency or low pitched noise often accompanied by a vibration. Also refer to Drumming. Bound Up An overstressed isolation (rubber) mount that transmits vibration/noise instead of absorbing it. Brakes Applied When the service brakes are applied with enough force to hold the vehicle against movement with the transmission in gear. Buffet/Buffeting Strong noise fluctuations caused by gusting winds. An example would be wind gusts against the side glass. Buzz A low-pitched sound like that from a bee. Often a metallic or hard plastic humming sound. Also describes a high frequency (200-800 Hz) vibration. Vibration feels similar to an electric razor. Camber The angle of the wheel in relation to the true vertical as measured looking from the front of the vehicle. Camber is positive when the wheel angle is offset so that the top of the wheel is positioned away from the vehicle. Caster The angle of the steering knuckle in relation to the true vertical as measured looking from the side of the vehicle. Chatter A pronounced series of rapidly repeating rattling or clicking sounds. Chirp A short-duration high-pitched noise associated with a slipping drive belt. Chuckle A repetitious low-pitched sound. A loud chuckle is usually described as a knock. Click A sharp, brief, non-resonant sound, similar to actuating a ball point pen. Page 1517 Page 1113 Power Distribution Fuse POWER WINDOW Fuse POWER WINDOW - protects the following circuits: ^ Power Windows Page 378 Heated Oxygen (HO2S) Sensor: Service and Repair REMOVAL 1. Disconnect the battery ground cable. NOTE: When the battery has been disconnected and reconnected, some abnormal drive symptoms may occur while the powertrain control module relearns its adaptive strategy. The vehicle may need to be driven 10 miles or more to relearn the adaptive strategy. 2. Raise and support the vehicle. 3. Disconnect the Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) electrical connector. 4. Unscrew and remove the HO2S. INSTALLATION 1. Apply a thin coating of anti-seize to sensor threads. Install new HO2S into exhaust manifold. NOTE: Do not contaminate sensing tip with anti-seize compound. 2. Torque sensor to 24-29 Nm (22-36 lb ft). 3. Plug in sensor electrical connector to harness. 4. Lower vehicle. 5. Connect battery ground cable. Page 657 Power Window Switch: Testing and Inspection Master Window Control Switch - Component Testing Procedure Master Window Control Switch - Component Testing Procedure Page 1095 Power Distribution Page 1568 CAUTION: Make sure the system is warmed up to normal operating temperature, as thermal expansion can he the cause of a strain problem. Raise and support the vehicle. 2. Loosen all exhaust hanger attachments and reposition the hangers until they hang free and straight. 3. Loosen all exhaust flange joints. 4. Place a stand to support the muffler parallel to the vehicle frame with the muffler pipe bracket free of stress. 5. Tighten the muffler connection. 6. Tighten all the exhaust hanger clamps and flanges (tighten the exhaust manifold flange joint last). ^ Verify there is adequate clearance to prevent grounding at any point in the system. Make sure that the catalytic converter and heat shield do not contact the frame rails. ^ After neutralization. the rubber in the exhaust hangers should show some flexibility when movement is applied to the exhaust system. ^ With the exhaust system installed securely and cooled. the rear hanger should be angled forward. 7. Lower the vehicle. 8. Test the exhaust system for normal operation. Wheel Bearing Check 1. WARNING: The electrical power to the air suspension system must be shut off prior to hoisting, jacking or towing an air suspension vehicle. This can be accomplished by turning off the air suspension switch. Failure to do so can result in unexpected inflation or deflation of the air springs, which can result in shifting of the vehicle during these operations. Raise the vehicle until the front tires are off the floor. ^ Make sure the wheels are in a straight forward position. 2. Note: Make sure the wheel rotates freely and that the brake pads are retraced sufficiently to allow free movement of the tire and wheel assembly. Spin the tire by hand to check the wheel bearings for roughness. Page 1635 Fuel Pressure Release: Service and Repair WARNING: Do not smoke, carry lighted tobacco or open flame of any type when working on or near any fuel related component. Highly flammable mixtures are always present and may be ignited, resulting in possible personal injury. CAUTION: Fuel supply lines will remain pressurized for long periods of time after engine shut down. This pressure must be relieved before servicing of the fuel system is begun. A valve is provided on the throttle body for this purpose. Remove the air cleaner and relieve system pressure by using Rotunda pressure gauge tool T80L-9974-A or equivalent and drain the system through the drain tube. Before servicing or disconnecting any fuel tubes or components, relieve the fuel pressure as follows: 1. Remove the rear seat cushion. 2. Start the engine. 3. Disconnect the fuel pump electrical connectors. 4. Wait for the engine to stall, then turn off the ignition switch. 5. Connect the fuel pump connectors. 6. Install the rear seat cushion. Page 1466 ^ The pinion gear depth is correct. Decrease the differential ring gear backlash. Tire Wear Patterns & Frequency Calculations Wheel and tire NVH concerns are directly related to vehicle speed and are not generally affected by acceleration, coasting or decelerating. Also, out-of-balance wheel and tires can vibrate at more than one speed. A vibration that is affected by the engine rpm or is eliminated by placing the transmission in NEUTRAL is not related to the tire and wheel. As a general rule, tire and wheel vibrations felt in the steering wheel are related to the front tire and wheel assemblies. Vibrations felt in the seat or floor are related to the rear tire and wheel assemblies. This can initially isolate a concern to the front or rear. Careful attention must be paid to the tire and wheels. There are several symptoms that can~be caused by damaged or worn tire and wheels. Carry out a careful visual inspection of the tires and wheel assemblies. Spin the tires slowly and watch for signs of lateral or radial runout. Refer to the tire wear chart to determine the tire wear conditions and actions. For a vibration concern, use the vehicle speed to determine tire/wheel frequency and rpm. Calculate tire and wheel rpm and frequency by carrying out and following: ^ Measure the diameter of the tire. ^ Record the speed at which the vibration occurs. Obtain the corresponding tire and wheel rpm and frequency from the Tire Speed and Frequency Chart. - If the vehicle speed is not listed, divide the vehicle speed at which the vibration occurs by 16 (km/h (10 mph). Multiply that number by 16 km/h (10 mph) tire rpm listed for that tire diameter in the chart. Then divide that number by 60. For example: a 40 mph vibration with 835 mm (33 in) tires. 40 divided by 10 = 4. Multiply 4 by 105 = 420 rpm. Divide 420 rpm by 60 seconds = 7 Hz at 40mph. Page 1464 Rotate the steering wheel to the RH stop. then turn the steering wheel 90° back from that position. Turn the steering wheel slowly in a 15° to 30° arc. 4. Turn the steering wheel another 90°. Turn the steering wheel slowly in a 15° to 30° arc. 5. Repeat the test with power steering fluid at different temperatures. 6. If a light grunt is heard or a low (50-200Hz) shudder is present, this is a normal steering system condition. Checking Tooth Contact Pattern/Condition of Ring & Pinion There are two basic types of conditions that will produce ring and pinion noise. The first type is a howl or chuckle produced by broken, cracked, chipped, scored or forcibly damaged gear teeth and is usually quite audible over the entire speed range. The second type of ring and pinion noise pertains to the mesh pattern of the gear pattern. This gear noise can be recognized as it produces a cycling pitch or whine. Ring and pinion noise tends to peak in a narrow speed range or ranges, and will tend to remain constant in pitch. 1. Raise and support the vehicle. 2. Drain the axle lubricant. Refer to the appropriate workshop manual for the draining procedures. 3. Remove the carrier assembly or the axle housing cover depending on the axle type. Refer to the appropriate workshop manual for the service procedures. 4. Inspect the gear set for scoring or damage. 5. In the following steps, the movement of the contact pattern along the length is indicated as toward the "heel" or "toe" of the differential ring gear. 6. Apply a marking compound to a third of the gear teeth on the differential ring gear. Rotate the differential ring gear several complete turns in both directions until a good, clear tooth pattern is obtained. Inspect the contact patterns on the ring gear teeth. 7. A good contact pattern should be centered on the tooth. It can also be slightly toward the toe. There should always he some clearance between the contact pattern and the top of the tooth. Tooth contact pattern shown on the drive side of the gear teeth. 8. A high, thick contact pattern that is worn more toward the toe. ^ Tooth contact pattern shown on the drive side of the gear teeth. ^ The high contact pattern indicates that the drive pinion is not installed deep enough into the carrier. Page 616 Transmission Range Switch: Testing and Inspection Transmission Range Switch (ATX) Transmission Range Switch Measure the resistance between BK/Y and BK/R wire terminals at the connector leading to the Transmission Range (TR) switch under the following conditions: Gearshift Lever Position Resistance Park (P) Less than 5 ohms Neutral (N) Less than 5 ohms All Other Positions Greater than 10,000 ohms If the resistance is not as specified above, replace the TR switch. Page 1173 The EVA allows for a systematic collection of information that is necessary to accurately diagnose and repair NVH problems. For the best results, carry out the test as follows: a. Test drive the vehicle with the vibration sensor inside the vehicle. b. Place the sensor in the vehicle according to feel. - If the condition is felt through the steering wheel, the source is most likely in the front of the vehicle. - A vibration that is felt in the seat or floor only will most likely be found in the driveline, drive axle or rear wheels and tires. c. Record the readings. Also note when the condition begins when it reaches maximum intensity. and if it tends to diminish above/below a certain speed. - Frequencies should be read in the "avg" mode. - Frequencies have a range of plus or minus 2. A reading of 10 Hz can be displayed as an 8 Hz through 12 Hz. d. Determine what the normal frequency is for the vehicle at a specified speed. Multiply the rear axle ratio by the Hz (1 Hz per every 5 mph). Example: A vehicle travelling 50 mph with a 3.08 rear axle ratio, the acceptable amount of Hz for the vehicle at that speed would be 10 (1 Hz per every 5 mph) X 3.08 (rear axle ratio) = 30.8 Hz. e. Place the vibration sensor on or near the suspect area outside the vehicle. f. Continue the road test, driving the vehicle at the speed the symptom occurs, and take another reading. Page 1673 ^ Shift the transmission into DRIVE, and increase and decrease the engine rpm between an idle to approximately 2000 rpm. Note the engine rpm and, if possible, determine the vibration frequency. ^ Repeat the test in REVERSE. ^ If the vibration/noise is duplicated when carrying out this test, inspect the engine and transmission or transaxle mounts. ^ If the concern is definitely engine speed-related, carry out the Engine Accessory Test to narrow down the source. ^ Proceed as necessary. Engine Accessory Test To carry out this test, proceed as follows: WARNING: Block the front and rear wheels, and apply the parking brake and the service brake, or injury to personnel can result. CAUTION: Limit engine running time to one minute or less with belts removed or serious engine damage will result. Note: A serpentine drive belt decreases the usefulness of this test. In these cases. use a vibration analyzer, such as the EVA, to pinpoint accessory vibrations. An electronic listening device. such as an EngineEAR, will also help to identify noises from specific accessories. Remove the accessory drive belts. ^ Increase the engine mm to where the concern occurs. ^ If the vibration/noise is duplicated when carrying out this test. the belts and accessories are not sources. ^ If the vibration/noise was not duplicated when carrying out this test, install each accessory belt, one at a time, to locate the source. Vehicle Cold Soak Procedure To carry out this procedure, proceed as follows: ^ Test preparations include matching customer conditions (if known). If not known, document the test conditions: gear selection and engine rpm. Monitor the vibration/noise duration with a watch for up to three minutes. ^ Park the vehicle where testing will occur. The vehicle must remain at or below the concern temperature (if known) for 6-~ hours. ^ Before starting the engine, conduct a visual inspection under the hood. ^ Turn the key on. but do not start the engine. Listen for the fuel pump. anti-lock brake system (ABS) and air suspension system noises. ^ Start the engine. ^ CAUTION: Never probe moving parts. Isolate the vibration/noise by carefully listening. Move around the vehicle while listening to find the general location of the vibration/noise. Then, search for a more precise location by using a stethoscope or EngineEAR. ^ Refer to Idle Noise/Vibration in the Symptom Chart to assist with the diagnosis. 6. Check OASIS/TSBs/Repair History After verifying the customer concern, check for OASIS reports, TSBs and the vehicle repair history for related concerns. If information relating to a diagnosis/repair is found, carry out the procedure(s) specified in that information. If no information is available from these sources, carry out the vehicle preliminary inspection to eliminate any obvious faults. 7. Diagnostic Procedure Qualifying the concern by the particular sensation present can help narrow down the concern. Always use the "symptom" to "system" to "component" to "cause" diagnosis technique. This diagnostic method divides the problem into related areas to correct the customer concern. Page 1250 Page 357 F4.) Tips Related to the Fuel System Monitor 1. HO2S sensors are not likely to be the cause of adaptive DTCs P0171, P0172, P0174, P0175: Most warranty-returned HO2S sensors (replaced for these DTCs) are found to function normally. Additional related DTCs will normally be present if there is a concern with the HO2S sensors. Do not replace an HO2S sensor unless verified through pinpoint diagnostic tests found in the PC/ED Service Manual. 2. DTCs P0171, P0172, P0174, and P0175 are not related to downstream H028 sensors: When diagnosing a vehicle with a MIL On and DTC(s) P0171, P0172, P0174, and/or P0175 in continuous memory, do not replace the downstream HO2S sensors. These DTCs have no connection to the downstream HO2S sensor function nor its diagnosis for faults. Always verify the vehicle concern, then perform the pinpoint diagnostics from the appropriate PC/ED Service Manual. 3. Diagnosing lean conditions and lean DTCs P0171, P0174: Freeze Frame Data can often help to identify the type of lean condition, even if the fault is intermittent, by indicating how the vehicle was being driven when the fault occurred. Diagnosis of lean conditions and lean adaptive DTCs can be difficult, especially if the concern is intermittent. Verifying the concern is extremely important. There are different types of lean conditions. The ability to identify the type of lean condition causing the concern can be crucial to a correct diagnosis. When DTCs P0171 and P0174 are both present, there is a strong likelihood of another concern being present: a. Vacuum leaks/unmetered air: In this type of condition, the engine may actually run lean of stoichiometry (14.7:1 air/fuel ratio) if the PCM is not able to compensate enough to correct for the condition. This condition is typically caused by air entering the engine through an abnormal source (opening), or due to a MAF malfunction. In this situation, the volume of air entering the engine is actually greater than what the MAF is indicating to the PCM. Vacuum leaks will normally be most apparent when high manifold vacuum is present, during idle or light throttle. If Freeze Frame Data indicates that the fault occurred at idle, a check for vacuum leaks/unmetered air when the engine is cold might be the best starting point. Examples: Loose, leaking or disconnected vacuum lines, intake manifold gaskets or 0-rings, throttle body gaskets, brake booster, air inlet tube, stuck/frozen/aftermarket PCV valve, unseated engine oil dipstick, MAF reading lower than normal, etc. b. Insufficient fueling: In this type of condition, the engine may actually run lean of stoichiometry (14.7:1 air/fuel ratio) if the PCM is not able to compensate enough to correct for the condition. This condition is typically caused by a fuel delivery system concern that restricts or limits the amount of fuel being delivered to the engine. This condition will normally be most apparent when the engine is under a hea